Bite force quotient

Bite force quotient (BFQ) is the regression of the quotient of an animal's bite force in newtons divided by its body mass in kilograms.[1][2] It does not take into account sharpness of teeth or other differences in tooth form; an animal with sharp teeth will project its bite force over a small surface area, while an animal with flatter teeth will spread the force out over a larger area.

Hite et al.,[3] who include data from the widest range of living mammals of any bite force regression to date, produce from their regression the BFQ equation:

where BF = Bite Force (N), and BM = Body Mass (g)

Carnivore BFQs[edit]

Animal BFQ
Aardwolf 77
European badger 109
Asiatic black bear 44
American black bear 64
Brown bear 78
Domestic cat 67
Cheetah 119
Cougar 108
Coyote 88
Dhole 132
Dingo 125
African wild dog 142
Domestic dog 114
Singing dog 100
Arctic fox 97
Cape genet 48
Grey fox 80
Red fox 92
Grey wolf 136
Brown hyena 113
Spotted hyena 119
Jaguar 137
Jaguarundi 75
Leopard 94
Clouded leopard 137
Lion 112
Northern olingo 162
Sand cat 130
Sun bear 160
Least weasel 164
Spotted-tailed quoll 179
Tasmanian devil 181
Tiger 127
Thylacine 166

Table sources (unless otherwise stated):[2][4][5][6]


  1. ^ The science and engineering of cutting: the mechanics and processes of separating and puncturing biomaterials, metals and non-metals, Antony Atkins, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009, p. 311, 413pp, ISBN 978-0-7506-8531-3 (retrieved 15 August 2010 via Google Books)
  2. ^ a b Wroe S, McHenry C, Thomason J (March 2005). "Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa". Proc. Biol. Sci. 272 (1563): 619–25. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2986. PMC 1564077. PMID 15817436.
  3. ^ Hite, Natalee J.; Germain, Cody; Cain, Blake W.; Sheldon, Mason; Perala, Sai Saketh Nandan; Sarko, Diana K. (2019). "The Better to Eat You With: Bite Force in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber) Is Stronger Than Predicted Based on Body Size". Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience. 13: 70. doi:10.3389/fnint.2019.00070. ISSN 1662-5145. PMC 6904307. PMID 31866840.
  4. ^ Fish That Fake Orgasms: And Other Zoological Curiosities, Matt Walker, Macmillan, 2007, pp. 98-9, ISBN 978-0-312-37116-6 (retrieved 15 August 2010 from Google Books)
  5. ^ Per Christiansen; Stephen Wroe (2007). "Bite Forces and Evolutionary Adaptations to Feeding Ecology in Carnivores". Ecology. 88 (2): 347–358. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[347:bfaeat];2. PMID 17479753.
  6. ^ Campbell, C. "Biology: Behavior - Diet". The Thylacine Museum. Retrieved 16 December 2020.