Goethe House

Goethe House
Goethe's birthplace
The facade of the house in 2011
Location23 Großer Hirschgraben, Frankfurt, Germany
Coordinates50°06′40″N 8°40′39″E / 50.11111°N 8.67750°E / 50.11111; 8.67750Coordinates: 50°06′40″N 8°40′39″E / 50.11111°N 8.67750°E / 50.11111; 8.67750
TypeMuseum, cultural institution, memorial site
Websitefrankfurter-goethe-haus.de/en/

The Goethe House is a writer's house museum located in the Innenstadt district of Frankfurt, Germany. It is the birthplace and childhood home of German poet and playwright Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. It is also the place where Goethe wrote his famous works Götz von Berlichingen and The Sorrows of Young Werther.[1] The house has been owned by the Freies Deutsches Hochstift (Free German Foundation) since 1863. It was opened as a museum with period furniture and paintings of Goethe's time there.

The Goethe House was destroyed by bombing in World War II, but reconstructed afterwards. It is located adjacent to the Deutsches Romantik-Museum, which opened in 2021. The house and museum can be visited with the same ticket.

History[edit]

As a private residence[edit]

The house was first built around 1618 by Dutch goldsmith Matthis van Hinsberg.[2] It went through a series of owners before being purchased in 1733 by Cornelia Goethe, the grandmother of Johann Wolfgang, who had previously owned an inn on the nearby Zeil. Cornelia purchased two adjoining properties and inhabited both of them; they were connected by destroying the partition wall.[3][4] Johann Caspar Goethe, Cornelia's son and a wealthy lawyer, moved into the property in 1741, and lived there with his wife Katharina Elisabeth Goethe from 1748.[5][4]

Johann Wolfgang was born in 1749 in an upstairs room of the house.[6] He would live at the house until the age of 16.[7]

In 1754, Cornelia died, and her son quickly set about renovating the house on Großer Hirschgraben. Johann Caspar was the architect of his own project,[8] by which he sought to knock down the smaller of the adjoining properties and extend the remaining property to create one, large property encompassing the full lot. The renovations began in April 1755, and were finished by February 1756.[9]

An artist's representation of the property before the 1755-56 renovation.
The completed house as it stood in 1850.

As Goethe writes in his autobiography Dichtung und Wahrheit (Poetry and Truth), his father was careful to preserve the double overhang of the facade, which was not permitted in new buildings under the codes of 1719 and 1749 due to fire risks; Johann Caspar was allowed to extend the overhanging facade as it was seen as a modification of an existing building, rather than a new-build.[10] The resulting property remained structurally unchanged after the 1755-6 renovation.

Johann Wolfgang first left the house in October 1765, to study law in Leipzig. He returned in 1768 due to an illness, before leaving again to finish his studies in Strasbourg (1770-71).[11] After returning from Strasbourg, Goethe would live at the family house in Frankfurt until leaving permanently for Weimar in 1775.

Johann Caspar died in 1782, after which Katharina Elisabeth inhabited the house on her own, and rented out some rooms to other inhabitants. In May 1795, Katharina sold the house and moved into a smaller apartment, on the urging of Johann Wolfgang and others.[3]

After leaving the Goethe family, the house was sold to widow Anna Catharina Rössing,[12] whose family owned the Goethe House until 1861. They rented out rooms to other families. In 1861, the house sold again, to Johann Georg Clauer, who split the first floor into two shops; this required significant changes, such as the installation of two new entrances and separating walls.[13]

Ownership by the Freies Deutsches Hochstift[edit]

In 1863, the Goethe House was purchased by geologist Otto Volger, the founder and chairman of the Freies Deutsches Hochstift (Free German Foundation).[14] The Hochstift restored the house to its state at the time of Johann Wolfgang Goethe's childhood, to serve as a memorial to the famed poet and playwright.[15] The Goethe House also served as a centre for the Hochstift's activities;[16] a room on the ground floor became a reading-room, and a room on the first floor became a lecture hall for public lectures. Other rooms were used to house the collections and exhibitions of the Hochstift. The house was opened to the public for the first time since in its history, and thus became the first public memorial to Goethe; the Goethe House in Weimar would not open until 1885. The house became a museum, decorated with period furniture and paintings, attempting to recreate authentically the environment in which Goethe spent his youth.[17]The Goethe Museum was opened in a new wing of the building in 1897, which also contained a library.[15]

Goethe House reconstruction in May 1949

The house and museum were destroyed during the Allied bombing of Frankfurt on 22 March 1944, along with much of the Frankfurt old city.[15]

After its destruction, there was a substantial debate as to what should become of the Goethe house. Some suggested that the site should be kept in ruins, fenced in and given a sign to signify the house's former existence.[18] Others saw the rebuilding as unnecessary, at least directly after the war, as many were still living in unsatisfactory conditions.[19] The Freies Deutsches Hochstift, on the other hand, wanted the house to be rebuilt exactly as it stood; this was the plan accepted by the Frankfurt municipality, and thus the reconstruction began in 1947.[20] The reconstruction was led by architect Theo Kellner [de].[21] The process was aided by the fact that there were many surviving plans and pictures of the house. In 1951, the Goethe House was re-opened to the public by Theodor Heuss, then President of Germany.[22]

When the adjacent Deutsches Romantik-Museum was opened in 2021, the Goethe House became accessible through it, with the same ticket.[23]

Architecture[edit]

Facade[edit]

The house's current facade dates back to the reconstruction of the Goethe House after the Second World War. However, it mimics closely that of the original house.

The original facade came about as a result of Johann Caspar Goethe's renovations of 1755–56, in which he demolished one of the two adjoining properties and extended the other over the created space. He did this in order to keep the overhanging facade of the house, which is a prominent feature of the facade.[24]

The facade was typical of affluent Frankfurt houses of the time;[25] Rudolf Jung notes that the house's facade "differed little from its neighbours".[26] The facade was inspired by Parisian architecture of the time of the Régence,[27][28] and is a mixture of the Baroque and Rococo styles. Another building of a similar style in Frankfurt is the Palais Thurn und Taxis, built between 1731 and 1739.

The ground floor of the Goethe House is the most elaborately designed part of the facade. Six window frames are fitted with wrought-iron architraves, which are decorated with garlands. The window bays are framed by ashlar pilasters.[25] There are three steps leading up to the doorway in the centre of the facade. Above the door is a transom window, decorated with an iron mesh, in which can be found the initials of Johann Caspar Goethe (JCG). The coat of arms of Johann Caspar can be seen in the archway above the door; he adapted the arms from those of his wife's family, the Textors, which feature an arm swinging an axe and a youth holding a sword. Johann Caspar then added three lyres to the design.[29]

The first and second floors of the facade are more simple, consisting of seven bays with windows, which have painted wooden sills but little decoration. Above this is the mansard roof, out of which protude four dormer windows, two on each side. In the centre of the roof protudes a large dormer structure, supported by vertical wooden pillars, which rises three floors above the main house. The top level of this structure is gabled, and contains a small circular skylight.[30]

The facade of the Goethe House is constructed primarily of bricks, with wooden pillars, window frames and cornices. The house is covered with yellow plaster, with the pillars, frames and cornices covered with grey plaster.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hodgson 1997, p. 56.
  2. ^ Jung 1902, p. 3.
  3. ^ a b Jung 1902, p. 5.
  4. ^ a b Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 23.
  5. ^ Hodgson 1997, p. 53.
  6. ^ Lübbecke 1946, p. 34.
  7. ^ Götting 1949, p. 11.
  8. ^ Lübbecke 1946, p. 35.
  9. ^ Jung 1902, p. 21.
  10. ^ Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 24.
  11. ^ Götting 1949, p. 16.
  12. ^ Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 32.
  13. ^ Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 33.
  14. ^ Adler 1959, p. 48.
  15. ^ a b c Stumm 2017, p. 162.
  16. ^ Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 34.
  17. ^ ""Frankfurt Goethe-Museum and Goethe-House"". frankfurt-tourismus.de. Retrieved 9 August 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ Sternberger 1947, p. 195.
  19. ^ Sternberger 1947, p. 197.
  20. ^ Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 35.
  21. ^ Hodgson 1997, p. 66.
  22. ^ Hodgson 1997, p. 67.
  23. ^ "Besuch". frankfurter-goethe-haus.de. Retrieved 9 August 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. ^ a b Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 26.
  25. ^ a b Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 29.
  26. ^ Jung 1902, p. 27.
  27. ^ Jung 1902, p. 28.
  28. ^ Hodgson 1997, p. 54.
  29. ^ Maisak & Dewitz 2018, p. 31.
  30. ^ Jung 1902, p. 29.

Sources[edit]

  • Adler, Fritz (1959). Das Freie Deutsche Hochstift. Seine Geschichte 1859–1885 (in German). Frankfurt.
  • Götting, Franz (1949). Chronik von Goethes Leben (in German). Darmstadt: Insel Verlag.
  • Hodgson, Petra Hagen (1997). Wandlung, Verwandlungen. Zur Arkitektur-Geschichte der Frankfurter Goethe-Stätten (in German). Frankfurt: Freies Deutsches Hochstift. pp. 52–78.
  • Jung, Rudolf (1902). Das Goethe-Haus in Frankfurt am Main (in German). Frankfurt.
  • Maisak, Petra; Dewitz, Hans-Georg (2018). Das Goethe-Haus in Frankfurt am Main (in German) (6th ed.). Frankfurt: Insel Verlag. ISBN 978-3-458-33925-0.
  • Lübbecke, Fried (1946). Frankfurt am Main. Goethes Heimat (in German). Frankfurt: Verlag Dr. Waldemar Kramer.
  • Sternberger, Dolf (April 1947). "Tagebuch, Das Frankfurter Goethehaus". Die Wandlung (in German) (3): 191–201.
  • Stumm, Alexander (2017). Architektonische Konzepte der Rekonstruktion (in German). Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-3-0356-1349-0.

External links[edit]