Infante Jaime, Duke of Madrid

Jaime de Borbón
Duke of Madrid
Jaime de Borbón, 1911
Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne
as Jaime III
Pretendence18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931
PredecessorCarlos VII
SuccessorAlfonso Carlos I
Head of the Capetian dynasty
Tenure18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931
PredecessorInfante Carlos, Duke of Madrid
SuccessorInfante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime
Born(1870-06-07)7 June 1870
Vevey, Switzerland
Died2 October 1931(1931-10-02) (aged 61)
Paris, France
Don Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma
Jacques de Bourbon
FatherInfante Carlos, Duke of Madrid
MotherPrincess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma
Royal styles of
Jaime de Borbón
Reference styleHis Royal Highness
Spoken styleYour Royal Highness

Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma, known as Duke of Madrid (27 June 1870 – 2 October 1931), was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain under the name Jaime III[1] and the holder of the Legitimist claim to the throne of France.


Don Jaime never married and probably had no children.[2]


parents: Don Carlos and Doña Margarita, late 1860s

Don Jaime's father, Carlos de Borbón (1848–1909), as Carlos VII was the 4th successive claimant to the Carlist throne (1868–1909) and later as Charles XI a legitimist claimant to the French one (1887–1909). Don Jaime's mother, Marguerite de Bourbon-Parme (1847–1893), was daughter to the second-last ruling Duke of Parma and sister to the last ruler of the Duchy of Parma. In 1894 Don Jaime's father remarried with Berthe de Rohan, an Austrian aristocrat and a distant descendant to a branch of French dukes, but the couple had no children.

Own marriage plans and speculations[edit]


Already when Jaime was 15 there were rumors about alleged Alfonsist plans to get him married with Mercedes, daughter to Alfonso XII;[3] the word kept circulating during the following years.[4] When he was 26, Don Jaime developed at least cordial correspondence with Mathilde, daughter of Prince Ludwig of Bavaria.[5] In unclear circumstances, possibly related to intrigues of his stepmother[6] and political problems with Madrid[7] the relationship dried up. Though when later serving in the Russian army in Warsaw Don Jaime had women in his mind[8] there is no confirmation of any amorous episodes. In his mid-30s he was rumored to marry Maria Sol Stuart Fitz-James,[9] Maria Annunciata of Austria,[10] and Louise of Orléans.[11] In fact, he was attracted to a 16-year-old Bourbon-Parme cousin Marie-Antoinette,[12] but apparently realised impracticability of the would-be relationship. Don Jaime soon started to pursue[13] her slightly older sister Zita;[14] though some claim that the two were about to get married[15] the girl has never watched her cousin favourably.[16] Rumors related to Princess Patricia of Connaught[17] and a niece of Kaiser Wilhelm II[18] followed; there was also a lawsuit about allegedly Don Jaime's son born by his former cook.[19] When he was in his mid-40s the alarm bells were already ringing very loud and succession became a burning political issue. About to turn 50 Don Jaime mounted matrimonial plans focused on Fabiola Massimo, his 19-year-old niece;[20] he already approached the Vatican about a dispensation. The permission has reportedly been denied, either due to protests of his brother-in-law or intrigues of the Madrid court.[21] When he was in his 50s newspapers floated news about Don Jaime's designs related to unnamed "princesas austriacas",[22] "a distinguished French lady"[23] or Blanca de Borbón y León.[24] The last rumours were circulated when aged 58, he was supposed to marry Filipa de Bragança.[25] It seems that at least not all of these speculations should be dismissed as entirely ungrounded.[26]

Childhood and youth[edit]

The formative years of Don Jaime are marked by absence of one or another parent; except the years of 1877–1880 the couple spent most of their time apart. Since turning 10 the boy lived away from the family boarded in various educational institutions, meeting his parents and sisters during short holiday spells; the exception were the years of 1886–1889, spent mostly with his mother and siblings in Viareggio. Don Jaime was growing up in rather cosmopolitan ambience, exposed to French, Spanish, German, English and Italian cultures; as a teenager he was already fluent in all these languages.[27]


with sisters, ca 1872

The birth of Don Jaime was celebrated in the Carlist realm as an extension of the dynasty, the baby greeted by hundreds of messages as the future king of Spain.[28] Initially Jaime remained with his parents and slightly older sister in Palais La Faraz, a mansion occupied by the family in Tour de Peilz near Vevey. In 1871 they moved to Villa Bocage in Geneva,[29] where Jaime's mother gave birth to another of his sisters. In 1873 Margarita de Borbón, her 3 children and a small quasi-court of assistants, secretaries and servants transferred to Ville du Midi in Pau. At that time Carlos VII was in Spain leading his troops during the Third Carlist War; in 1874 the boy with his mother visited his father on the Carlist-held territory and dressed in uniform, was cheered with frenetic enthusiasm by Carlist soldiers.[30] Upon return to Pau Margarita gave birth to two more daughters before in September 1876[31] the mother, 5 children and royal entourage – including preceptors of the boy[32] – settled in a hotel at Rue de la Pompe in Paris.[33] Don Carlos was mostly travelling, first on a journey to America[34] and then to the Balkans; he joined the family in late 1877. Either in late 1876 or in early 1877 Don Jaime started frequenting Collège de l'Immaculée-Conception at Rue de Vaugirard, a prestigious Jesuit establishment. Initially the boy followed a challenging semi-board pattern; waking up as early as 4:30 am he travelled by public transport to the college and for the night he used to return to his family.[35] This changed in 1880, when due to political pressure of the French government Carlos VII was forced to leave France and settled in Venice.[36] At that time relations between Don Jaime's parents have already turned sour; doña Margarita decided not to accompany her husband and settled in own estate near Viareggio.[37] With his parents away, until completing the curriculum in 1881 the boy lived on the college premises with other students.[38]


with parents and sisters, early 1880s

Following a summer break with his parents in Italy in 1881 Don Jaime entered Beaumont College, prestigious Jesuit establishment in Old Windsor near London.[39] It was catering to Catholic aristocracy from all over Europe, though the largest contingent was formed by Irish boys.[40] Initially Jaime lived with his old preceptor Barrena, who settled in Windsor to facilitate accommodation even though James Hayes[41] was chosen as a new spiritual guide;[42] in 1882 Barrena left and Jaime moved to common dormitory. As perhaps the most prestigious student[43] he received special treatment.[44] Visited by parents[45] and paternal grandfather, who lived in Brighton,[46] Jaime used to spend holidays in Viareggio or Venice.[47] It seems that his relations with other boys were good, though he tended to patronising[48] and excess of ambition.[49] Don Jaime completed the Beaumont curriculum in May 1886.[50] The same year he inherited from the Chambords part of their fortune and real estates in Austria, in particular the Frohsdorf palace.[51] There were plans about further education in Stella Matutina in Feldkirch, but most of 1887 was spent on recovery from very serious health problems, which had earlier prompted some papers to report his agony;[52] part of the scheme was Don Jaime's trip with his Bardi uncles to Egypt and Palestine.[53] Following return to Viareggio in 1888 he embarked on his first diplomatic mission to Vatican;[54] he was also subject to dynastic speculations related to Nocedalista break-up in Spain[55] and these about his future military education in England and would-be service in India.[56] He seems to have stayed with his mother and sisters in Viareggio rather than with his father in Venice, in 1889 recorded as travelling across Europe either on family business, e.g. to attend the wedding of his sister in Frohsdorf, or on leisure, e.g. with his mother visiting the galleries and museums of Paris.[57]

Early adult years[edit]

Don Jaime with father and sister, 1891

It is not clear whether Carlos VII has discussed with the British his alleged vision of Don Jaime pursuing a military career in England. Eventually in 1890 Don Jaime indeed commenced military education, though not in Sandhurst but in Theresianische Militärakademie in Wiener Neustadt. Still considered childish by his mother, he was accompanied by a family trustee, Miguel Ortigosa.[58] Almost no details on Don Jaime's military education are available and it is not known whether and if yes what army branch he opted for. According to his later opponents[59] in the academy Don Jaime became loose on his Catholic practices and got somewhat derailed from Traditionalist track.[60] He graduated in 1893,[61] but mounting political differences between Carlos VII and the kaiser produced a disaster: Don Jaime was neither promoted to officer rank nor admitted to the imperial army.[62] The years of 1894–1895 were dedicated mostly to travelling, be it distant voyages like the tour to India, Siam, Indoniesia and the Philippines, or shorter trips, e.g. to the Spanish Morocco.[63] It was in 1894 that for the first time since the early childhood days he visited Spain;[64] officially incognito and accompanied by a Vasco-Navarrese Carlist leader Tirso de Olazábal, during his 37-day tour[65] Don Jaime was many times identified. He gave rise to a number of rather friendly anecdotes,[66] while his journey was widely discussed in the press.[67] Most likely in the mid-1890s Don Carlos explored perspectives of his son commencing a military career in one of major European armies. Don Jaime's service in the imperial Austrian army was out of the question; it is not clear whether the British or the German army was at any point considered an option.[68] Eventually Don Carlos renewed his 1877 relations with the St. Petersburg court and some time late 1895 it was agreed that Don Jaime would join the Russian army.[69]

Warsaw spell[edit]

Between April and June 1896[70] Don Jaime joined a cavalry unit in Odessa, where he performed a routine garrison service. In late 1897 he received a transfer order to Warsaw, where he arrived in late March or early April 1898. He spent there almost 6 years on the highly intermittent basis, until he departed for Austria in late 1903. Though in terms of his political career Don Jaime's stay in the city was of little relevance, it is not clear to what extent the service mattered as his formative period.

Military career[edit]

Don Jaime as praporshchik, 1898

Don Jaime arrived in Warsaw following at least half-a-year spell in the Russian army;[71] he had served in a cavalry regiment in Odessa before.[72] It is not clear why the prince left the Black Sea coast and what political, diplomatic or military mechanism got him landed in Warsaw;[73] the choice was probably determined by family logistics.[74] Though convenient travelwise, given the role of Warsaw garrison the assignment was a challenge from military perspective, especially that Don Jaime was assigned to the Life Guard Grodno Hussar Regiment (Гродненский гусарский лейб-гвардии полк).[75] His new unit was a cavalry regiment[76] forming part of the very prestigious if not somewhat snobbish, Russian aristocracy dominated Life-Guard category.[77]

It is not entirely clear what was Don Jaime's rank when he arrived in Warsaw; Spanish press referred to him as "teniente",[78] Polish press referred to him as "chorąży".[79] There is no official Russian document available for consultation; the most likely rank was "Praporshchik" (прапорщик; equivalent to Ensign).[80] On 17 September 1900 he was formally promoted to the rank of "Poruchik" (поручик; equivalent to Lieutenant)[81] and at that rank he served until the end of his actual Warsaw assignment, though in 1904 he was promoted to the rank of "Kapitan" (капитан; equivalent to captain)[82] and finally to "Polkovnik" (полковник; equivalent to Colonel). None of the sources consulted provides any information on Don Jaime's function in the regiment and it is not known whether he served in regimental staff or with any of the squadrons.[83] In late 1902 the press reported that upon return from a just commencing 6-month leave, the following May Don Jaime would intend to seek release from duty,[84] but in late summer 1903 he was still reported serving.[85] In October 1903 he was transferred from the Hussar Regiment to personal staff assigned to the Warsaw district commander.[86]

Duration and sub-periods[edit]

Barracks at the former Агриколя Дольная street.

Though he was formally appointed to Warsaw in December 1897[87] and though it is likely he spent a few brief spells in the city between 1904 and 1906, there is no confirmation of Don Jaime actually serving in Warsaw before March 1898[88] and after October 1903.[89] His duty was largely performed on the on and off basis; in-between the above dates he spent in total some 40 months in the city, on average slightly more than half a year per annum.[90] Except 1898 and 1899 he used to leave around November, as allegedly the local autumn weather did not serve him well;[91] Don Jaime was usually returning to service around April.[92] The longest uninterrupted stay identified was between November 1899 and June 1900.[93] Punctuated by at least month-long breaks of leave periods, his service in Warsaw broke down to 8 separate strings.[94]

When away, Don Jaime was either on leave in Austria-Hungary, Italy and France[95] or on service assignments with the Russian army: as member of demarcation commission at Russian frontier with Turkey, Afghanistan and Persia (from summer to fall 1899),[96] in combat units during the Boxer Uprising (from summer 1900 until spring 1901)[97] and during the Russo-Japanese War (starting the spring of 1904). He also spent brief rest periods in the Polish countryside.[98] He was last reported in Warsaw in late autumn of 1903,[99] leaving the city some time by the end of the year. As at that time he was already released from the hussar regiment, it is likely he intended to terminate his Warsaw service. During outbreak of the war against Japan in early 1904 Don Jaime was with his father in Venice, where he was reached by the call to arms; before having been received by Nicholas II in St. Petersburg in March he was likely to have stayed few days in Warsaw, though this was not recorded by the local press. It is also possible—though not confirmed in sources—that he spent few days in Warsaw in June 1905 (en route from Austria to St. Petersburg and back) and in July/August 1906 (en route from Paris to St. Petersburg and back)[100]

Break in China[edit]

Russian officers in China

Following outbreak of the Boxer Rebellion Don Jaime travelled to St. Petersburg to request permission to join the imperial troops. During a personal meeting the tsar Nicholas II consented but asked him to be careful, as his life belonged "not only to him, but also to his country".[101] In mid-August 1900 Don Jaime left Warsaw for Odessa;[102] he then boarded a Russian military transport ship which took him to Port Arthur,[103] where he joined a Russian contingent[104] He was assigned to the corps of general Konstantin Tserpitsky, whose troops in September advanced in north-eastern China towards the Shanhai Pass. There is almost no verifiable information on Don Jaime's service and some details available look dubious.[105] A hagiographic biography provides conflicting information; on the one hand it suggests that Don Jaime served as Tserpitsky's aide-de-camp,[106] on the other, that he led two Russian companies during a charge[107] or headed reinforcements which came to rescue of a beleaguered French unit.[108]

The episode celebrated in the Carlist narrative was the one which supposedly demonstrated Don Jaime's military competence, but also his Catholic zeal. He reportedly commanded a successful relief assignment, deployed from Shanhaiguan to assist a Belgian-Dutch Catholic mission headed by bishop Conrad Abels and besieged by the Boxers in Manchuria.[109] At great personal cost Don Jaime later obtained tsar's personal authorization to garrison the area despite earlier admiral Alekseyev's orders to withdraw.[110] In December Don Jaime contracted typhus[111] and with high fever he was evacuated to a Russian naval hospital in Nagasaki. From there in February 1901 he sailed to France;[112] in mid-March 1901 Don Jaime arrived in Marseilles.[113] Because of his raid which reportedly saved the Belgian religious he was awarded the Order of Leopold;[114] it was also proposed that he is awarded the Legion of Honor,[115] but there is no confirmation that he has actually received it.[116]

Private life[edit]

Don Jaime driving automobile at the outskirts of Warsaw, 1900

Initially Don Jaime lived in a semi-rural, military-dominated Sielce suburb, hardly within the administrative city limits; his residence was a modest one-room apartment in the regimental officers' barracks building at Агриколя Дольная street, with two batmen – one of them Spanish – living next door.[117] Starting June 1900 he was already reported as living at Шопена street 8,[118] in a plushy, prestigious area and in a newly constructed apartment building. Despite his modest rank Don Jaime took part in official feasts seated among most prestigious participants, be it members of the House of Romanov, top Russian generals like military district commander or civil officials like president of Warsaw.[119] Very sporadically he was reported as taking part in gatherings of local elites, either those associated with visits of his distant relatives like Ferdinand Duke of Alençon[120] or feasts of apparently unrelated Polish aristocrats like count Mieczysław Woroniecki.[121]

Though possibly familiar with religious hierarchs,[122] in general Don Jaime was not listed as engaged in local community life;[123] he declared spending his free time in theatres and restaurants[124] and indeed was noted there.[125] He was, however, a noticeable city figure as a sportsman; apart from joining the local horse racing society[126] he was particularly recognised for automobile activities.[127] He owned one of the first cars in Warsaw, a De Dion Bouton machine allegedly well recognised by the city dwellers. The only local he seemed to have been in closer relations with was Stanisław Grodzki, a Warsaw automobile pioneer and owner of the first car dealership;[128] local motor fans were greeting Don Jaime when he was launching his automobile trips.[129] Rather accidentally Don Jaime was also acknowledged and cheered as a sportsman by "forgemen, peasants and innkeepers".[130] Spanish press reported Carlist officials departing from Madrid to see him,[131] but the Polish one has not noted any visits paid.


Don Jaime around 1900
Don Jaime around 1900

The Warsaw press of the era was fairly well informed about developments in Spain, with war against the United States systematically reported and even results of the Cortes elections discussed down to minuscule details; e. g. in 1899 there were 4 Carlists noted as elected.[132] Spanish political life was depicted rather accurately if not indeed prophetically,[133] though at times with some patronising tones.[134] It was acknowledged—even in jokes—that very few Poles knew who the Carlists were.[135] Despite occasional references to Carlism in news columns, cases of linking these reports with Don Jaime residing in Warsaw were rather exceptional.[136] Usually press notes referred to Don Jaime as "His Royal Highness", they were maintained in polite style which has never turned into anything more than sympathetic desinteressement.[137] Not a single case of either hostile or friendly stance towards the Carlists has been identified.[138] Though interviews with Don Jaime adhered to respectful and warm tone, they by no means amounted to political proselytism;[139] some of them sounded slightly ironic about the Carlist cause.[140]

Historically relations between Russia and Carlism have been marked by indifference with occasional demonstrations of mutual sympathy.[141] Don Jaime has not been noted as involved in any political initiatives, though his taking part in official Russian feasts with members of the House of Romanov participating was clearly flavoured with political undertones. At one opportunity the prince made some effort to court the Poles, referring to alleged Polish combatants in ranks of the legitimist troops during the last Carlist war;[142] official Spanish diplomatic services tried to keep a close watch on him.[143] National and social unrest which erupted in Warsaw in 1905 occurred after Don Jaime had already left the city; he had little opportunity to make his own opinion let alone take sides. It is not clear whether vague personal references to the Russian revolution, made by Don Jaime in his 23 April 1931 manifesto, were anyhow related to the 1905 events.[144]

Warsaw spell in perspective[edit]

Don Jaime (centre) on garrison duty

Don Jaime joined the Russian army in his mid-20s, in-between youth and mid-age, straightforward, easy-going,[145] just about to get married and to launch his international career.[146] His last, brief Warsaw spells occurred when he was in his mid-30s, a solitary who by some was already viewed as a bit of a disappointment.[147] For the rest of his life he remained a highly ambiguous if not mysterious figure and is as such acknowledged in historiography.[148] It is not clear to what extent service in the Russian army contributed to his formation.[149] Imperial Guards corps officers made a peculiar company, with own identity, values and rituals,[150] especially in an ethnically alien ambience. According to a Polish cliché a cynical lot,[151] their preferred sports were allegedly womanising,[152] drinking and tormenting Jews in the jolly westernmost garrison of the Empire, in Russian officer-speak known as весёлая варшавка.[153] Some of his Carlist opponents claimed that in the early 1900s Don Jaime was already ideologically derailed.[154]

Don Jaime is not known to have publicly and explicitly referred to the Warsaw service in the decades to come.[155] In Spanish historiography the Warsaw spell is usually treated marginally.[156] Don Jaime's military career in the Far East is at times acknowledged as sort of a curiosity,[157] though his service in the Russian army is mentioned when discussing controversies within Carlism related to Spain's role in the First World War.[158] Historiographic works on Carlism focus either on Don Jaime's role in internal strife in the 1910s or on his very last years during Berenguer's dictablanda and the Second Spanish Republic in the early 1930s.[159] In Polish historiography his hussars spell went largely unnoticed. Dedicated works dealing with Spanish-Polish relations acknowledge even brief Polish episodes of celebrities like Pablo Picasso or Carmen Laforet but they ignore Don Jaime,[160] even though along Sofía Casanova (1907–1945) and Ignacio Hidalgo de Cisneros (1950–1962) he is one of the best-known Spaniards permanently residing in Warsaw.[161]

Infante mid-aged[edit]

After his departure from Warsaw in late 1903 and before his assumption of the Carlist claim in mid-1909 Don Jaime was already mid-aged. Having served some 7 months in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese war in 1904 he returned to Europe and set his residence in Paris. Since 1906 he travelled extensively to Spain, but he did not engage in open politics; as the future Carlist king he was merely establishing personal contacts, learning things and making himself known. Relations with his father deteriorated, but not to the point of breakup.

Russo-Japanese war[edit]

Don Jaime (back, with moustache) with Japanese POWs, 1904

During winter of 1904 Don Jaime was on leave from active service and resided with his father in Venice. It is there that in February he was reached by the call to arms; he was ordered to join imperial troops in the Far East.[162] He first travelled to Moscow, then took the trans-Siberian train[163] and made the last section of his journey aboard a ship on the river Liao.[164] Don Jaime reported on duty to general staff of general Kuropatkin in Port Arthur in early May 1904; he was immediately promoted to captain.[165] As the fortress was coming under the Japanese threat the staff withdrew to Liaoyang, where Don Jaime spent around a month on regular garrison duty;[166] at the time he was injured having fallen from a horse and spent some time using crutches.[167] He was then deployed in the 6. Cavalry Regiment[168] within the 1st Siberian Army Corps, commanded by general Stackelberg. In June he took part in fierce combat during the Battle of Te-li-Ssu, which might have been the 5 most dramatic days of his life.[169] His unit was later withdrawn to Liaoyang.

According to his own account Don Jaime spent the next few weeks of June–July on special missions, including minor skirmishes and scouting in plain clothes beyond the enemy lines.[170] Nearly taken prisoner by the Japanese, he posed as an English press correspondent and managed to make it back to own troops.[171] In August he spent a longer spell on leave in Vladivostok; at that time the press already circulated news about his withdrawal due to health problems,[172] but he returned to line in Mukden in the early autumn. In October he suffered injuries again having fallen from a horse[173] and it is not clear whether he took part in the Battle of Shaho.[174] In November he was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir and was promoted to major.[175] Following an unspecified “special mission”[176] in December 1904 Don Jaime was granted his request to depart for Europe and later that month he left the Kuropatkin's staff in Mukden.[177] Having travelled by train across eastern China he arrived in Saigon.[178] From there he sailed to Marseille, back in Europe in early May 1905.[179]

Eternal voyager[edit]

in Madrid, 1907

Having returned from the war Don Jaime set his headquarters in the prestigious Paris district of Passy.[180] From there he embarked on numerous trips, which mark the years of 1905–1909; in the Spanish press they earned him the names of “eterno viajero”[181] and “inevitable príncipe errante”.[182] Initially he shuttled across France, e.g. visiting the French Riviera[183] or Chambord.[184] In early 1906 Don Jaime travelled to Rome, reportedly admitted by the Pope.[185] In the spring of 1906 he was in Spain for the first time since 1894; the journey commenced a series of at least 12 separate entries into the country. They usually took place in the spring or the summer, and for the autumn Don Jaime returned to Paris.[186] The most frequently visited city was Barcelona, where he was noted in 1906,[187] 1907,[188] 1908[189] and 1909;[190] he toured the vasco-navarrese region in 1906,[191] 1907,[192] and 1908.[193] At least once, in 1907, he was in Madrid,[194] but he was seen also in Avila,[195] Zamora[196] and even Lugo[197] and Seville.[198] The only distant journey was to Morocco.[199]

As an ardent motorist Don Jaime normally moved in automobile, either his own or this of his closest companion,[200] a Basque engineer and entrepreneur Martín Gaytan de Ayala y Aguirrebengoa;[201] initially a former conservative deputy Esteban Ruiz Mantilla was also listed as his associate.[202] He travelled low-profile and tried to maintain incognito; he did not give interviews and did not attend banquets or other official events. Information on his trips usually leaked to the press afterwards and was subject to endless speculations, confirmations and denials. Government officials used to dismiss the issue as irrelevant,[203] though occasionally left-wing press agonized about a dangerous subversive who comes and goes “como Pedro por su casa”.[204] At times he was ridiculed with ironic couplets.[205] When in Spain, Don Jaime dedicated most of his time to leisure: sightseeing, theatres, restaurants and bullfights, which he greatly enjoyed.[206] However, he also used to meet local Carlist leaders. In most cases these were meetings in private, as Don Jaime was careful not to test the patience of the government. There were exceptions, though; in June 1908 he took part in large Carlist rallies in Somorrostro[207] and Zumarraga; just in case, he returned to France the same day.[208]


Don Jaime (2fL) with Tamarit (3fL) in Biarritz, 1908

In 1905-1909 Don Jaime did not openly engage in politics, though he was subject to ongoing controversy. Le Matin published an interview given back in Manchuria,[209] in which he spoke favorably about the French republican government and its measures against religious orders; he declared himself a supporter of a Britain-modeled “monarquía republicana”.[210] Despite later open letter which toned down the statement[211] his father got outraged[212] and reportedly initially he refused to see him.[213] In another interview, visibly moved after the Battle of Te-Li-Ssu carnage Don Jaime declared he would never accept such a price for ascending to the throne; this pacifist tone left numerous Carlists bewildered.[214] Though he reportedly objected in Vatican to marriage of Alfonso XIII,[215] he nevertheless wrote a personal letter which protested the anarchist attempt against the couple in 1906; he introduced himself as “adversario leal”.[216] There was constant gossip about his approaches towards the royal family.[217] The press claimed he was closer to Conservatism than Traditionalism[218] or even a Liberal,[219] floated rumors about Don Jaime running in elections,[220] appointed capitán general honorario[221] or that he was prepared to recognize Alfonso XIII.[222]

When in Spain Don Jaime used to meet regional Carlist leaders like Tirso de Olázabal,[223] Juan Vázquez de Mella,[224] Manuel Sivatte,[225] Lorenzo Allier,[226] Joaquín Llorens or Esteban Bilbao.[227] In correspondence with the nationwide party leader Matías Barrio y Mier he limited himself to official acknowledgements of various initiatives[228] and in public statements he stuck to ambiguous, general advice.[229] In 1906 Don Jaime asked the former political leader Marqués de Cerralbo to come to Paris, and the two met in 1907;[230] officially the infant intended to thank Cerralbo for his efforts, but given the party leadership was with Barrio, the encounter did not look standard. Very rarely Don Jaime spoke as authority; this was the case when he disowned one factious group, declared under the Integrist influence.[231] Except the 1908 Zumarraga appearance he did not attend political rallies. In 1908 he gave another controversial interview. Don Jaime declared Carlism the party of order ready to support the government in works towards the glory of Spain, expressed support for Solidaridad Catalana and spoke in favor of Germany as the only genuine Spanish ally.[232]

Family relations[edit]

with father, propaganda collage, around 1905

Don Jaime's relations with his father deteriorated steadily since the latter married Berthe de Rohan; the step-mother and the step-son, with barely 2 years of age difference, developed venomous mutual hostility. Her presence in the Loredan Palace in Venice is quoted as one of key reasons why Don Jaime preferred to avoid the place; she retaliated by suggesting to Carlos VII that his son approached her.[233] It is not clear when the father and the son have seen each other last; the ultimate opportunity mentioned by the press was the summer of 1905, when en route to Russia Don Jaime spent some time in Venice.[234]

Relations between Carlos VII and Don Jaime dried out also due to other reasons. The former was furious having read the latter's interviews and his opinions, visibly deviating from the Traditionalist orthodoxy. Moreover, he was increasingly upset by growing independence of Don Jaime, who no longer consulted his father on own lifestyle. Carlos VII (in his late 50s) complained that his son (in his late 30s) did not seek his permission when embarking on foreign travel, especially to Spain, and that his visits there not only compromised the royal image, but might have fuelled internal squabbles within Carlism. Carlos VII claimed that he had explicitly banned Don Jaime from visiting Spain, but to no avail.[235]

Don Jaime maintained fairly cordial relations with his paternal uncle and potential but unlikely successor as claimant, Don Alfonso Carlos; however, the latter thought him “jugador, especulador, vividor”, sort of a playboy who lost part of his fortune on gambling;[236] he was not surprised that no responsible woman of prestigious position was willing to marry him.[237] Don Jaime remained on very good terms with his oldest sister and her husband[238] and the Duque de Parma cousin.[239] There is no information on family relations with Elvira and Alicia, two sisters who engaged in scandalous intimate relations. Also Don Jaime was not exempt from similar aura, e.g. in the spring of 1909 the press reported that when driving across northern Spain, he was “accompanied by two señoritas”[240] – a fairly damning revelation at the time.

Re-inventing himself[edit]

Don Jaime (middle, with cane) during seaplane attempt, Paris 1907

Approaching 40, a bachelor with no established personal record except erratic military career in foreign armies, Don Jaime was increasingly aware of his awkward position. It seems that he was at a loss as to the way forward. One option left to him was to proceed as an officer in the Russian army. It was initially reported that he was released from Russo-Japanese war on a 4-month-leave;[241] indeed in May 1905 he travelled to Russia[242] but details are not clear, except that he soon returned to France. One year later, in the summer of 1906, Don Jaime again visited St. Petersburg; some thought he would be re-incorporated in his old Grodno regiment,[243] but eventually the press reported he was released into reserve.[244] In 1908 he was promoted to colonel, which prompted ridicule of “el coronel Borbonoff”.[245] He was rumored to become a Russian military official serving as military liaison officer in the French Casablanca;[246] it is not clear how much substance there was. In later official galas Don Jaime appeared in the uniform of a Russian colonel.[247]

Apart from politics and personal life, in the years of 1905-1909 Don Jaime tried his hand as a sponsor engaged in works on transportation technology on land, air and water. He remained a keen motorist, though as automobiles were getting increasingly popular, what used to be a challenging and dangerous sport was gradually becoming a usual travelling routine. However, he was also interested in aviation and supported seaplane engineering, getting personally involved in numerous innovative flying attempts.[248] At the same time he invested in naval science; some press titles hailed him as an inventor and scientist, who took part in sporting events[249] as a launch pad for an innovative maritime propulsion system, 2-3 times faster than what had been known up to date; he apparently invested significant amounts of money into the project.[250] Nothing came out of these initiatives; he was eventually noted as the one who suggested new measures related to stray dogs.[251] Though at times he was noted as engaged in charity, helping single Carlist exiles in France,[252] he has never tried to mount a general scheme to assist Carlist ex-combatants who had fought for his father but suffered misery and depravation afterwards.

Claimant to the Spanish and French thrones[edit]

Jaimist gathering in Sant Fost de Campsentelles (1919)

On 18 July 1909 Jaime succeeded his father as Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain and likewise inherited the Legitimist claim to the throne of France. As Carlist pretender to Spain he was known as Jaime III, but used the style Duke of Madrid. As holder Legitimist claim to France by so-called Blancs d'Espagne he was consider to be Jacques I, but often referred to as Duke of Anjou.

Jaime retired from the Russian army and henceforward lived mostly at Schloss Frohsdorf in Lanzenkirchen in Austria and at his apartment on Avenue Hoche in Paris. He visited Spain incognito on a number of occasions.[253] He also owned the Villa dei Borbone at Tenuta Reale near Viareggio in Italy which he had inherited from his mother.[254]

Jaime de Borbón in Saint-Jean-de-Luz, home of Carlist politician Tirso de Olazábal (at center)

For part of World War I Jaime lived under house-arrest at Schloss Frohsdorf in Austria.

On 16 April 1923, by a decree to his Delegate-General in Spain, the Marques de Villores, Jaime created the Order of Prohibited Legitimacy (Orden de la Legitimidad Proscrita) to honour those who suffered imprisonment in Spain or were exiled for their loyalty to the Carlist cause.

In April 1931 the constitutional king of Spain Alfonso XIII was forced to leave the country and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. Jaime issued a manifesto calling upon all monarchists to rally to the legitimist[clarification needed] cause.[255] Several months later, on 23 September, Jaime received Alfonso at his apartment in Paris.[256] Two days later Alfonso and his wife Ena received Jaime at the Hotel Savoy d'Avon near Fontainebleau.[257] Jaime conferred the collar of the Order of the Holy Spirit upon Alfonso. These meetings marked a certain rapprochement between the two claimants to the Spanish throne. According to some authors – contested by the others – the two signed or verbally agreed an arrangement named Pact of Territet which would terminate the Alfonsist-Carlist discord.

A week after his meetings with Alfonso, Jaime died in Paris. He was buried at the Villa dei Borbone at Tenuta Reale. He was succeeded in his Spanish and French claims by his uncle Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime.



  1. ^ Enumerated after Jaime II, King of Aragon.
  2. ^ in 1911 his former cook sued Don Jaime over fatherhood of her son; the case was dropped in unclear circumstances, El Pais 03.11.12, available here, Juan Ramón de Andrés Martín, El caso Feliú y el dominio de Mella en el partido carlista en el período 1909–1912, [in:] Historia contemporánea 10 (1997), p. 113.
  3. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 24.10.85, available here; María de las Mercedes (1880-1904) in 1901 married her second cousin, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
  4. ^ allegedly the plan was created by the Vatican in collaboration with the imperial court in Vienna. For 1886 rumors on Maria's marriage with Don Jaime see e.g. El Siglo Futuro 19.05.86, available here. The rumors persisted and were repeated for years to come, for 1888 see e.g. La Lucha 25.07.88, available here, for 1889 see La Lucha 22.12.89, available here
  5. ^ Mathilde of Bavaria (1877–1906) married Prince Ludwig of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1900
  6. ^ exact reasons for Bertha de Rohan's opposition to the marriage are not clear; some authors accused her of pure feminine jealousy and ill will. When talking to her husband, Doña Bertha allegedly charged Mathilde with misconduct, Melgar 1940, p. 159
  7. ^ it is not clear what exactly was the nature of Don Jaime's epistolographic relationship with princess Mathilde, yet both Prince Ludwig and Don Carlos understood the matter was serious. Prince Ludwig might not have been averse towards a would-be marriage, yet his wife Maria Theresa maintained friendly relationship with the court in Madrid and was reportedly opposed to her daughter marrying a Carlist prince, Melgar 1940, p. 161
  8. ^ one press note quoted Don Jaime declaring himself admirer of handsome Warsaw ladies, see Tygodnik Ilustrowany 21.05.98, available here, though the thread was not followed further on
  9. ^ Las Provincias 01.02.05, available here; Eugenia Sol María del Pilar Fitz-James Stuart y Falcó (1880-1962) in 1906 married Duque de Santoña
  10. ^ La Cruz 08.08.06, available here; Maria Annunciata (1876-1961) in 1904 was supposed to marry a member of the imperial Habsburg family, but the engagement was broken. She has never married
  11. ^ La Cruz 14.10.06, available here; Louise (1882-1958) in 1907 married Infante Carlos, Prince of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
  12. ^ Marie-Antoinette de Borbón-Parma (1895–1977) has never married and died as a Benedictine nun. She has caught Don Jaime's attention during family meetings due to her reported beauty, youth and charm. At that time she was only 16 years old and "casi una niña"; the affection was probably never revealed, yet it seems that Don Jaime was seriously pondering upon a would-be relationship, since he decided to discuss it with his secretary. Don Jaime's secretary reportedly tried to persuade his king the impracticability of such a union, Roman Oyarzun Oyarzun, Pretendientes al trono de España, Barcelona 1965, p. 84
  13. ^ allegedly Don Jaime pursued Zita zealously and stubbornly, though the source of this information, Elvira de Borbón, is of questioned credibility, España 16.09.22, available here. Zita wrote later that "qui avant demande ma main avec autant de zele que d’insucces", Jacques Bernot, Les Princes Cachés, Paris 2014, ISBN 9782851577450, p. 131
  14. ^ Zita de Bourbon-Parma (1892–1989) married archduke Karl in 1911; the groom was second-in-line heir to the Austrian and Hungarian thrones
  15. ^ Melgar 1940, p. 168
  16. ^ Bernot 2014, p. 131
  17. ^ Patricia Connaught (1886–1974) was daughter to Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, a member of the royal British family; she married with relatively low-rank English aristocrat in 1919. For news on her marriage with Don Jaime see L’Univers 20.03.14, available here
  18. ^ e.g. in August 1910 the press announced Don Jaime's near marriage with an unnamed "niece of the German kaiser" or "a German princess", see Le Gaulouis 14.11.10, available here. The oldest niece of Wilhem II which was not married at the time was princess Helen of Greece, aged 14
  19. ^ El Pais 03.11.12, available here, Andrés Martín 1997, p. 113. Don Jaime has admitted to maintaining "intimate relations" with his female cook and seemed even prepared to accept the child as his natural one, but he noted that the woman had maintained relations also with a servant and a Russian colonel, so fatherhood was not clear. The Russian colonel interviewed as a witness refused to give evidence and the case was dropped. The cook pledged she would keep demanding justice from Don Jaime, but the press did not note any follow up
  20. ^ Fabiola Massimo (1900–1983), daughter to Don Jaime's younger sister Beatriz, married an Italian aristocrat in 1922
  21. ^ Melchor Ferrer, Historia del tradicionalismo español, vol. 29, Seville 1960, p. 140. Fabiola ended up marrying Italian aristocrat Enzo Galli Zugaro
  22. ^ España 16.09.22, available here
  23. ^ La Acción 03.07.23, available here
  24. ^ Blanca de Borbón y León (1898–1989) was daughter of Francisco de Paula de Borbón y Castellví, himself son of Enrique, Duke of Seville; she married conde de Romanones in 1929. For the news of her would-be marriage with Don Jaime see Le Petit Parisien 07.10.24, available here
  25. ^ Filipa de Bragança (1905–1990) was daughter to Miguel II de Bragança, legitimist claimant to the Portuguese throne; she has never married. For news on heir would-be marriage with Don Jaime see Heraldo de Madrid 02.01.28, available here
  26. ^ e.g. upon news of nearing marriage with Filipa de Bragança political secretariat of Don Jaime issued an ambiguous statement; on the one hand it declared the news incorrect, on the other it referred to the information as "premature for now", La Epoca 05.01.28, available here. Don Jaime used to entertain Filipa and her mother in his Frohsdorf castle during a few weekly strings. His uncle noted that "una de las chicas [from the Braganca family] le gustaba mucho", but she was much younger and her family was skeptical, Ignacio Miqueliz Valcarlos (ed.), Una mirada intima al dia a dia del pretendiente carlista, Pamplona 2017, ISBN 9788423534371, p. 394
  27. ^ which does not mean that Don Jaime was equally disposed towards all these nations. He considered himself a Spaniard and harbored very strong Francophone sympathies; he also admired the British. In his youth perfectly familiar with the German realm, during the Great War he developed adverse feelings towards especially the Austrians. Don Jaime in his youth consistently denigrated the Italians, his later views are not clear
  28. ^ B. de Artagan [Reginaldo Brea], Príncipe heróico y soldados leales, Barcelona 1912, pp. 13–14
  29. ^ Bernardo Rodríguez Caparrini, Alumnos españoles en el interado jesuita de Beaumont (Old Windsor, Inglaterra), 1888-1886, [in:] Hispania Sacra 66 (2014), p. 412
  30. ^ Brea 1912, p. 15
  31. ^ until late summer 1876 Margarita and her children stayed in Pau, Jordi Canal, Incómoda presencia: el exilio de don Carlos en París, [in:] Fernando Martínez López, Jordi Canal i Morell, Encarnación Lemus López (eds.), París, ciudad de acogida: el exilio español durante los siglos XIX y XX, Madrid 2010, ISBN 9788492820122, p. 92
  32. ^ the preceptors included elderly Carlist general León Martínez de Fortún and a young Navarrese priest, Manuel Fernández de Barrena. At later stage they were replaced with Miguel de Ortigosa
  33. ^ the building does not exist any more. It was demolished upon construction of Rue de Siam
  34. ^ Don Carlos he returned to Paris in September 1876 and left for the Balkans in December 1876, Canal 2010, pp. 92–93
  35. ^ Beatriz Marcotegui Barber, Olaia Nagore Santos, Visit to the Temporary Exhibition at the Museum of Carlism [internal booklet issued by Museum of Carlism], Estella 2012, p. 19
  36. ^ Melgar 1940, p. 38. According to other sources Carlos VII was expulsed in 1881 and settled in Venice in 1882, Canal 2010, p. 112
  37. ^ doña Margarita has freshly inherited the Tenuta Reale property from her grandmother, Melgar 1949, p. 47
  38. ^ Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 412
  39. ^ total outlay on 5-year education at Beaumont was in the region of £600; average income of a small farming household was around £38. A contemporary scholar notes that the expense involved "effectively ruled out all but the wealthiest Catholic families", Oliver P. Rafferty, Irish Catholic Identities, Oxford 2015, ISBN 9780719097317, pp. 265–266
  40. ^ about 20% of boys were Irish, The boy who would later turn into another recognizable public figure was Patrick O’Byrne (born 1870), son to an Irish landowner and future anti-Treaty Sinn Féin revolutionary, Rafferty 2015, pp. 266–267. Percy O’Reilly (1870) was a silver medallist for polo at 1908 Olympics. Apart from Don Jaime, there were few more Spaniards in the college
  41. ^ father Hayes, born 1839, was slightly older than Fernández de Barrena, born in the mid-1840s
  42. ^ Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 414
  43. ^ the only boy who could have competed with Don Jaime in terms of status was son of the prime minister of South Africa, Thomas Upington (born 1872), Rafferty 2015, pp. 266–267
  44. ^ Don Jaime taught his colleagues to smoke cigarillos; when detected, other boys were slammed, but Jaime was not, Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 415
  45. ^ e.g. in 1882 Don Jaime was visited by parents and all 4 sisters to assist in his first communion, Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 420
  46. ^ Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 417
  47. ^ e.g. in 1882 in Venice, Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 422
  48. ^ e.g. once he declared "when I am a king, I will make you Juan a governor, and you Roberto will be a minister", Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 423
  49. ^ e.g. when practicing boxing, Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 428
  50. ^ Rodriguez Caparrini 2014, p. 442
  51. ^ La Epoca 26.07.96, available here
  52. ^ La cri de peuple 28.10.86, available here; contemporary press mentioned gastric issues, see La Correspondencia de España 21.10.86, available here, contemporay scholars talk about typhus, Marcotegui Barber, Nagore Santos 2012, p. 25
  53. ^ El Liberal 17.03.87, available here
  54. ^ Brea 1912, p. 20
  55. ^ there were speculations that the Nocedalistas might declare Carlos VII deposed and offer the Carlist crown to Don Jaime, La Justicia 16.07.88, available here, or that Carlos VII might seek compromise with the Nocedalistas by abdicating in favor of Don Jaime, El Tradicionalista 07.08.88, available here
  56. ^ El Bien Público 09.10.88, available here
  57. ^ La Epoca 18.08.88, available here
  58. ^ the years of 1890–1892 are the period when his mother developed particular concerns about Don Jaime, considered not only childish but also impulsive, non-systematic, interested mostly in horses and plays, in general – a person who needed close tutelage and supervision. For details, see correspondence between Margarita de Borbón and the Ortigosas, in Francisco Javier Caspistegui (ed.), Carlos VII. Cartas familiares. Estudio preliminar y edición, Pamplona 2016, ISBN 9788494462504
  59. ^ populated by "ateos y escépticos y corrompidos", Juan Ramón de Andrés Martín, El cisma mellista. Historia de una ambición política, Madrid 2000, ISBN 9788487863820, pp. 42–44
  60. ^ Andrés Martín 2000, pp. 42–44 and onwards
  61. ^ according to one author he graduated with "más alta de la promoción" position, Ferrer 1960, p. 11
  62. ^ the Austrian kaiser was particularly cautious about the Carlist pretenders since in 1879 his relative Maria Christina married the Alfonsist pretender styled as king Alfonso XII. However, the emperor maintained cool yet still correct relations with the Carlist claimant. As head of the House of Habsburg he permitted the 1889 marriage of archduke Leopold Ferdinand with Don Carlos’ daughter, the decision he later declared to have been an error. When in 1893 Don Carlos formally approached him re his own planned marriage with Berthe de Rohan, the Austrian citizen, the kaiser consented but explicitly demanded that the Carlist claimant stops tampering with the Spanish affairs. Carlos VII immediately rejected the demand, which caused almost total breakdown of relations between the two, Melgar 1940, pp. 96–98, see also Ferrer 1960, p. 11
  63. ^ Polo y Peyrolón 1909, p. 24
  64. ^ some sources claim that Don Jaime was in Spain in 1882, Marcotegui Barber, Nagore Santos 2012, p. 20
  65. ^ La Epoca 09.07.09, available here
  66. ^ the friendly anecdote featured a train conductor en route to Burgos declaring himself a former Carlist cavalryman, Actualidades 1894, available here; the unfriendly one featured a comment allegedly heard from a passer-by: “oh, so this is Don Jaime? incredible, so young and already the son of Carlos VII!”, El Dia 04.10.94, available here
  67. ^ Jordi Canal i Morell, La revitalización política del carlismo a finales del siglo XIX: los viajes de propaganda del Marqués de Cerralbo, [in:] Studia Zamorensia 3 (1996), pp. 269–70
  68. ^ it is unlikely that France, an icon of republicanism, has ever been considered. The Italian army was most likely out of the question due to the conflict with Vatican and deposition of Parma, Modena and Tuscany dukes, all related to the Borbon family. Besides, the Italian army might not have been considered prestigious enough
  69. ^ Polo y Peyrolón 1909, p. 79
  70. ^ he was first reported to join the 24. dragoon's regiment in February, La Dinastia 20.02.86, available here, but in late March the press reported he would join his unit upon mastering the basics of Russian (and ridiculed that mastering castellano might be more difficult), see La Justicia 30.03.96, available here. In early July Don Jaime was already noted as serving in Odessa, La Ilustracion Española y Americana 8 July 1896, available here
  71. ^ according to some Spanish sources Don Jaime's service in Odessa lasted 6 months, Salvador Bofarull, Un príncipe español en la Guerra Ruso-Japonesa 1904–1905, [in:] Revista de Filatelia 2006, p. 55, accessible here. However, the dates hardly match. Some authors claim he was received by the tsar Nicholas II "early 1896" and immediately followed to his Odessa unit, Artagan 1912, p. 24. In March 1897 he was reported sporting a Russian uniform when visiting France, Kurjer Warszawski 23.02.97, available here. He received transfer order in December 1897 and left Odessa probably in January 1898, Artagan 1912, p. 24, El Correo Militar 30.12.87, available here
  72. ^ Spanish sources usually refer to "24. Regimiento de Dragones de Loubna" (transliterated into Latin alphabet with different degree of accuracy; Лубна is a river, tributary of the Don, and flows across a traditional cossack area), compare Artagan 1912, p. 24. Other sources claim that the official name was "8th His Imperial Highness Archduke Otto of Austria's Lubny Hussar Regiment"; its headquarters was in Odessa and it formed part of the 8th Cavalry Division, stationed in Kishiniev, compare marksrussianmilitaryhistory service, available here. There is a source which acknowledges the difference and attempts to clarify the confusion as to numbering and as to dragoon v. hussar issue, see Михаил Быков, Офицерской национальности, [in:] Русский мир 08.13, available here. The author claims that 8-м Лубенский гусарский полк was renamed to 24-й Лубенский драгунский полк during the reign of Alexander III, and that the reverse process was commenced in 1907
  73. ^ Polish press of the era claimed Don Jaime was transferred to Warsaw on his own request, Tygodnik Ilustrowany 21.05.98, available here, Kurjer Warszawski 30.04.98, available here
  74. ^ in 1886 Don Jaime inherited from late archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este (sister of his paternal grandmother, who died with no issue) the castle of Frohsdorf, located 50 km away from Vienna. As he was only 16 at the time, his father was allowed usufruct of the residence, compare Schloß Frohsdorf und seine Geschichte service, available here, Agustín Fernández Escudero, El marqués de Cerralbo (1845–1922): biografía politica [PhD thesis], Madrid 2012, p. 425. At that time Warsaw and Vienna were connected by regular and fast railway service, for timetable compare Gazeta Handlowa 04.05.86, available here (Warsaw to Austrian border) and here (Russian border to Vienna). Don Jaime's father visited Warsaw before the Third Carlist War and liked the city, at least according to the confession made to a Pole visiting him in Estella, Ignacy Skrochowski, Wycieczka do obozu Don Karlosa, [in:] Piotr Sawicki (ed.), Hiszpania malowniczo-historyczna, Wrocław 1996, ISBN 8322912153, p. 170. He visited the city another time on 9 February 1877, Kurjer Warszawski 10.02.77, available here
  75. ^ for detailed history of the unit see Юлий Лукьянович Елец, История Лейб-Гвардии Гродненского Гусарского полка, New York 2015, ISBN 9785519406048. Though named after the city of Grodno, the regiment has never been stationed there
  76. ^ none of the sources consulted provides information whether the cavalry career was in line with military training Don Jaime had received earlier in Wiener Neustadt
  77. ^ in the Russian army of the era there were only 2 Hussar Life-Guard regiments, apart from the Grodno one also the personal Tsar Regiment, see service, available here Archived 23 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  78. ^ El Correo Militar 30.12.97, available here
  79. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 24.11.98, available here
  80. ^ literally translatable as Polish "chorąży", English "standard-bearer" or Spanish "abanderado"; in some armies the rank corresponded to the first officer rank and in some to a rank in-between NCOs and commissioned officers. Other options possible are that Don Jaime's rank was подпоручик or корнет
  81. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 26.9.00, available here
  82. ^ during the Russo-Japanese War, on 7 May 1904, Bofarull 2006, p. 56. Don Jaime was still captain when in 1906 the tsar asked him to stay in service, La Epoca 13.07.06, available here
  83. ^ though given his limited (if any) knowledge of Russian it is hard to imagine how he could have served in line and communicated with NCOs and soldiers
  84. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 24.10.02, available here
  85. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 17.09.03, available here
  86. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 25.10.03, available here
  87. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 24, El Correo Militar 30.12.87, available here
  88. ^ the first confirmed press note is Kurjer Warszawski 30.04.98
  89. ^ the last confirmed note of Don Jaime serving was provided by Gazeta Kaliska 18.09.03 (October Spanish calendar), available here. There is a single case of a Warsaw paper issued after 1903 and referring to Don Jaime as "lieutenant of the hussar regiment, stationed in our city", see Nowa Gazeta 21.07.09, available here. The note, however, was acknowledging death of Carlos VII and seems based on some outdated editorial materials; it contains many factual errors (e.g. that Carlos VII returned to Spain in 1878 and that Don Jaime was wounded in Russo-Japanese war in 1900)
  90. ^ approximately 6 months in 1898, 8 months in 1899, 7 months in 1900, 7 months in 1901, 6 months in 1902 and 6 months in 1903
  91. ^ "że mu zupełnie nie służy jesień klimatu polskiego", Kurjer Warszawski 12.11.98, available here
  92. ^ as was the case in 1900, 1901 and 1902
  93. ^ in November 1899 he was reported in Skierniewice, see Kurjer Warszawski 03.11.98, available here, and in June 1900 he was reported leaving Warsaw for Paris, Kurjer Warszawski 10.06.00, available here
  94. ^ 1) late winter 1898 till summer 1898 (followed by summer in unspecified location), 2) August 1898 till November 1898 (followed by around 4 weeks on leave in Austria), 3) December 1898 till summer 1899 (followed by demarcation work at borders with Turkey, Afghanistan and Persia), 4) unspecified time late 1899 or early 1900 till June 1900 (followed by a month in Paris), 5) July till August 1900 (followed by Boxer War campaign), 6) spring 1901 till late 1901 (followed by stay in Paris and Nice), 7) spring 1902 till October 1902 (followed by stay in Paris and Nice), 8) spring 1903 till autumn 1903 (followed by stay in Venice, and then departure to the Russo-Japanese war)
  95. ^ he underwent tracheotomy in Nice following a car accident there in January 1902, Kurjer Warszawski 02.01.02, available here
  96. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 24; in October 1899 he was already reported back in Warsaw
  97. ^ Gazeta Lwowska 08.08.00, available here
  98. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 17.07.01, available here
  99. ^ Gazeta Kaliska 18.09.03
  100. ^ trips were alleged by the Spanish press though none of the local Warsaw papers confirmed Don Jaime's stay, compare e.g. Gazeta Kaliska 15.03.04, Czas 05.03.04, Kurjer Warszawski 13.04.04
  101. ^ Ferrer 1960, p. 13
  102. ^ on the Warsaw Terespolska railway station he was seen off by the orchestra of his regiment, Gazeta Lwowska 08.08.00, available here, wrote: “Ks.Jaime de Bourbon, porucznik grodzieńskiego pułku huzarów lejbgwardyi, opuścił wczoraj Warszawę, udając się przez Odessę morzem do Trientsinu. Don Jaime'a żegnali na dworcu Praga terespolska towarzysze broni z orkiestrą pułkową. Siostra księcia, księżna Schonburg-Waldenburg, pożegnawszy brata, wyjechała za granicę”
  103. ^ date of Don Jaime’s arrival in Port Arthur is not clear. Some claim it was June, Ferrer 1960, p. 13; the more likely date is mid-September, as at the time steamers travelled from Europe to the Far East in around a month
  104. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 25
  105. ^ some claim he took part in assault on the Taku fortress, Ferrer 1960, pp. 13-14. In fact, Taku has been taken by the Allies in June this year
  106. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 26
  107. ^ Artagan 1912, pp. 25-26
  108. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 26
  109. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 27, Ferrer 1960, p. 14
  110. ^ Don Jaime addressed the tsar by telegram messages, which travelled via the British Suez; the entire communication reportedly cost him 3,000 francs, Artagan 1912, p. 28, Ferrer 1960, pp. 16-17
  111. ^ Gazeta Handlowa 31.12.00, available here
  112. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 29
  113. ^ Kurjer Codzienny 14.03.01, available here
  114. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 29
  115. ^ Artagan 1912, 26
  116. ^ some authors claim he refused it, Ferrer 1960, p. 15
  117. ^ "all apartment is one room, with 2 windows covered by white cotton curtains embroidered in Scottish patterns..." and onwards with the same detailed focus. Grand portrait of Don Carlos was noted on the wall. Kurjer Warszawski 18.04.98, available here
  118. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 10.06.00; the building was damaged during the Warsaw Uprising but still fairly well preserved in early 1945, compare here; it was probably demolished in the late 1940s, see here
  119. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 15.11.99, Wiek 16.09.01, Gazeta Kaliska 18.09.03
  120. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 30.08.01, available here
  121. ^ in the summer of 1901 Don Jaime was in Kanie, a real estate near Lublin, taking part in engagement of Elżbieta Woroniecka, daughter of duke Mieczysław Woroniecki, with Paweł Jurjewicz, Kurjer Warszawski 17.07.01
  122. ^ in 1910–1911 in Frohsdorf Don Jaime was visited by "el rector de una orden religiosa de Varsovia", who pressed the marriage question, Roman Oyarzun, Pretendientes al trono de Espana, Barcelona 1965, p. 83
  123. ^ e.g. attending charity balls, Catholic feasts or cultural events. One press note quoted Don Jaime declaring himself admirer of handsome Warsaw ladies, see Tygodnik Ilustrowany 21.05.98, available here, though the thread was not followed further on
  124. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 18.04.98
  125. ^ for feminine view of Don Jaime as met in the opera see Clycére Emilie de Witkowska, Don Jaime, en el Régimiento de Húsares de Grodno, [in:] Tradición II/41 (1934), pp. 408–410
  126. ^ Tygodnik Ilustrowany 21.05.98, available here
  127. ^ the Warsaw papers provided picturesque and detailed accounts of Don Jaime's departure for Paris, see Kurjer Warszawski 23.06.00, available here, also here. After 10 days he was confirmed arriving in Paris, El Correo Militar 02.07.00, available here
  128. ^ Don Jaime repeated the pioneering journey of Grodzki from Warsaw to Paris, compare Początki polskiej motoryzacji [in:] motokiller service, available here
  129. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 10.06.00, available here
  130. ^ Kurjer Warszawski 10.06.00
  131. ^ de Cerralbo was reported departing for Warsaw, see La Correspondencia de España 29.9.01, available here
  132. ^ Kurjer Warszwski 21.4.99
  133. ^ "Carlists and Republicans form two extreme wings, both hostile to the existing regime. Conservatives and Liberals form two wings of mainstream politics, competing for offices, perks and privileges; in terms of program the former are closer to the Carlists, while the latter are closer to the Republicans. [...] A phrase making rounds is that only revolution can save the country, but neither a Carlist nor a far more probable Republican one can change anything; power will move to another bunch of politicians, very much like the currently ruling cliques. Worse, a Republican revolution will undoubtedly trigger a civil war, and victory of the Republicans will produce a Carlist rising, and a Carlist rising will bring about the claims of independence from Catalonia and Navarre", Wojciech hr. Dzieduszycki, Wrażenia z Hiszpanii, [in:] Biesiada Literacka 05.07.01, available here
  134. ^ "telegraph wires seem to be on the poles, but do not be so naive to attempt sending a telegraph message beyond Spain; even the diplomatic ones get lost somewhere on their way. Roads exist only in theory. Only the schools maintained by bishops do function, state-ran secondary schools are rather like primary ones. The army looks nice, but when it came to war they had neither food nor munitions", Biesiada Literacka 05.07.01. However, an average 1900 Polish GDP per capita is estimated (in Geary-Khamis dollars) at 86% of the corresponding Spanish figure, compare here
  135. ^ "At a patisserie: who are those Carlists, who make fuss in Spain? [apparently a Pole asking a Jew]; I do not know, but I guess they must be sort of Spanish Jews; what makes you think so, Moshe? [in street-talk a name commonly standing for a traditional Jew, friendly though very patronising way of addressing]; well, I am not sure, but they write here in the paper that 10,000 rifles were taken away from the Carlists when having been smuggled from France to Spain". The joke probably requires a lengthy footnote to get all undertones explained; in a veiled way it referred to harassment of the Jews (either official Russian or popular Polish one), their economic focus on trade, often semi-legal nature of Jewish business and Polish perception that according to the Jews the world revolved around them. It also delivers clear sense of total ignorance, desinteressement and lack of emotional engagement as to Carlism if not indeed the entire Spanish politics. Mucha 07.01.00, available here
  136. ^ reporting that Carlist underground arms depot had been unearthed in Catalonia one paper explained the Carlist cause adding that a descendant of Carlos VII served in Warsaw as a sub-colonel, Zorza 12.11.02, available here
  137. ^ reporting Don Jaime's career during the Boxer Uprising was a tricky exercise; on the one hand, the press followed official course of hailing the Russian army, on the other, venerating articles were incompatible with feelings of those Poles who did not identify themselves with the Russian cause, compare Kurjer Warszawski 12.08.01
  138. ^ the Polish public opinion of mid-19th century tended to be adverse towards Carlism. The movement was associated with reactionary politics and with Holy Alliance, pitted against the independence of Poland; it was rather revolutionary, liberal forces which were believed to have been sympathetic towards the Polish cause (not necessarily representative and rather extreme example is Wiktor Heltman, Rewolucyjne żywioły w Hiszpanii, ich walka do 1833 roku, [in:] Pismo Towarzystwa Demokratycznego Polskiego 2 (1840), pp. 471–499, presenting Carlism as obscurantism, absolutism and religious fanaticism, compare here, pp. 471 and onwards). Indeed in Spain it generated some compassion mostly among the Liberals, and the term "Poland of the South" was even coined by Emilio Castelar to denote Spain as endangered by oppressive foreign reaction. The Carlists did not demonstrate interest in Polish cause, especially that "polacos" and "polaquería" started to denote anarchy of the First Republic. On the other hand, periodical Carlist onslaught on Bismarck, lambasted for pursuing anti-Catholic Kulturkampf policy, coincided (sometimes explicitly) with Polish feelings. By the end of 19th century Polish references ceased to aid those fearing partitions of Spain and started to help those seeking exactly the opposite. Parallels drawn by nationalistically-minded Basques and Catalans ("Quedo ahora plenamente convencido de que no es Vd. español, sino bizcaino. Los polacos nunca se dirán rusos o alemanes, sino polacos") have certainly not helped the Polish cause among the Carlists. It is not clear to what extent Don Jaime, living beyond Spain, was familiar with the above subtleties. Interesting studies on mutual perception in Jan Kieniewicz (ed.), Studia polsko-hiszpańskie. Wiek XIX, Warszawa 2002, ISBN 8391252582, especially the essays of Patrycja Jakóbczyk-Adamczyk and Juan Fernández Mayoralas-Palomegué; enhanced version of the latter's work is available here.
  139. ^ Don Jaime was presented as "typical son of the South" with detailed description of his physis (Warsaw papers did not print photographs or graphics at that time); introduction was concluded by remark that the prince "makes a nice impression of a mondain", Kurjer Warszawski 30.4.89, available here; also another periodical picked up the same thread (not indifferent in relation to Don Jaime's outlook), when quoting that the prince liked Warsaw for its "European character" (and not, e.g., for its Catholic zeal), Tygodnik Ilustrowany 09.05.98, available here
  140. ^ "so the young prince keeps dreaming about future battles his father will fight to defend his dynastic rights, keeps recollecting heroic Poles who under the standard of Don Carlos stood for the alien cause, and keeps waiting... and waiting...", Tygodnik Ilustrowany 09.05.98
  141. ^ Russia tended to ambiguity when facing the Carlist question. During the First Carlist War the tsarist administration was somewhat favorable to the cause of Don Carlos but eventually it adopted a wait-and-see policy, even though the Carlist envoy was received in St. Petersburg and the Carlists were aided financially, see José Ramón de Urquijo y Goitia, El carlismo y Rusia, [in:] Hispania. Revista Española de Historia 48 (1988), pp. 599–623. During the Third Carlist War the Russian policy largely followed the course set by Bismarck, anxious that a Carlist victory might sustain French legitimism and internal opposition of the German Catholics, see Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, La contrarrevolución legitimista, 1688–1876, Madrid 1995, ISBN 9788489365155, pp. 236–237. At one point Russia has even favored a formally international intervention, to be carried out by the French, to crush the Carlists, Javier Rubio, La política exterior de Cánovas del Castillo: una profunda revisión, [in:] Studia historica. Historia contemporánea 13–16 (1995–1996), pp. 177–187. As to the Carlists, they tended to sympathise with the tsarist regime; the Russian political model was pitted against masonic, liberal and plutocratic French and especially British models, compare the 1905 comments of key Carlist theorist Gil Robles, El Imparcial 07.03.05, available here. Sympathies for the Russian legitimist cause were sustained by a number of White Russians joining Carlist tercios during the Spanish Civil War and this stance is well alive until today, compare 2014 comments of Don Sixto, who called to "reconocer a Rusia sus fronteras históricas", see Monde & Vie 09.04.14, available here Archived 22 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  142. ^ allegedly he remembered the Polish Carlist volunteers very well, Kurjer Warszawski 30.04.89. This appears to be pure courtesy; first, during the last Carlist war Don Jaime was just a 5-year-old; second, there are very few Poles known to have joined the Carlist troops in the 1870s. In general, the Poles tended to fight against the Carlists rather than to support them. For the First Carlist War see Michał Kudła, Szlak bojowy polskich ułanów w czasie pierwszej wojny karlistowskiej, [in:] Jan Kieniewicz (ed.), Studia polsko-hiszpańskie. Wiek XIX, Warszawa 2002, ISBN 8391252582, pp. 127–161. No Polish unit fought in the Third Carlist War, though some individuals—most notable of them Józef Korzeniowski, known as Joseph Conrad—could have been involved on the Carlist side, for historiographical account see Franciszek Ziejka, Conrad's Marseilles, [in:] Yearbook of Conrad Studies 7 (2012), pp. 51–67, available here. Few thousand volunteers from Poland—though 45% of them were Polish Jews rather than ethnic Poles—joined International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Magdalena Siek (ed.), Wojna domowa w Hiszpanii 1941–1987, Warszawa 2010, p. 2, available here Archived 17 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  143. ^ Eduardo González Calleja, La razón de la fuerza: orden público, subversión y violencia política en la España de la Restauración (1875–1917), Madrid 1998, ISBN 9788400077785, p. 198, Fernández Escudero 2012, p. 400
  144. ^ "Desgraciadamente mi experiencia política y los largos años pasados en Rusia, me han enseñado que una República patriótica, moderada, bien intencionada puede muy fácilmente y en un espacio de tiempo brevísimo, ser arrollada por la avalancha del comunismo internacionalista, destructor de la religión, de la patria, de la familia y de la propiedad", quoted after José Carlos Clemente Muñoz, El carlismo en el novecientos español (1876–1936), Madrid 1999, ISBN 84-8374-153-9, p. 116
  145. ^ compare account of his trip to Spain of 1894, published in Tirso de Olazábal, Don Jaime en España, Bilbao 1895. The voyage was also widely reported by the Spanish press, compare La Epoca 09.07.94, available here, El Liberal 10.07.94, available here. The event turned into a media scoop, discussed for months and accompanied by rather friendly anecdotes, compare Actualidades 1894, available here or El Dia 04.10.94, available here
  146. ^ compare an opinion published in a specialized American review: "his [Carlos VII’s] son, Don Jaime, is serving in a Russian regiment at Warsaw, and has won golden opinions in Russia… a boy scarce out of his teens, whose knowledge of men and things has yet to be acquired, and whose military training is still in the preliminary stages… it is quite possible that the advent [to the throne] of Don Jaime would meet with the approval of Nicholas II… marriage of Don Jaime […] with a reigning Latin family, such as that of Austria, or even Italy, might make a difference on the political chessboard…", James Roche, The Outlook for Carlism, [in:] The North American Review 168/511 (1899), pp. 739–748
  147. ^ following press reports of Don Jaime making statements incompatible with the Carlist ideario, in 1905 his father and at that time the claimant to the throne Carlos VII declared those news unfounded and incorrect; among some Carlists the doubts persisted. Juan Ramón de Andrés Martín, El cisma mellista. Historia de una ambición política, Madrid 2000, ISBN 9788487863820, p. 42
  148. ^ there are fundamental questions lingering which pertain to his general outlook and to his vision of Carlism, let alone questions about his political strategy, personal life and character; some authors refer to "la misteriosa, ambigua y compleja personalidad del heredero carlista don Jaime", Andrés Martín 2000, p. 42, also Fernández Escudero 2012, p. 513
  149. ^ some of his Carlist opponents noted that Don Jaime was educated in "una Academia [the Austrian Military Academy] de ateos y escépticos y corrompidos" and somewhat light on his Catholic practices, Andrés Martín 2000
  150. ^ Frans Coetzee, Marilyn Shevin Coetzee, Authority, Identity and the Social History of the Great War, New York 1995, ISBN 9781571810670, p. 277
  151. ^ for overview of Polish stereotypes held about Russians, see Виктор Хорев (ed.), Россия – Польша. Образы и стереотипы в литературе и культуре, Москва 2002, ISBN 5857592143, Andrzej de Lazari (ed.), Katalog wzajemnych uprzedzeń Polaków i Rosjan, Warszawa 2006, ISBN 8389607654, pp. 303–327, Joanna Dzwończyk, Robert Jakimowicz, Stereotypy w stosunkach polsko-rosyjskich, [in:] Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej w Krakowie 611 (2002), pp. 103–116
  152. ^ in 1890 Warsaw was rocked by a scandal ending in tragedy. Cornet of the Grodno Hussar Regiment, Александр Бартенев, shot a starlet of the Warsaw theatre, Maria Wisnowska. The culprit was allegedly intoxicated by opium. The incident was reported by the Polish press abroad, rather than in Warsaw, since Russian censorship imposed media blackout on the incident, compare the Lviv-based Gazeta Narodowa 27.07.90, available here. The same paper (issued in Austro-Hungary) agonized about allegedly lenient treatment of the culprit by Russian military and justice authorities
  153. ^ see also comments about "life in Warsaw, known with some justification as little Paris", John Ernest Oliver Screen, Mannerheim: the Years of Preparation, London 1970, ISBN 9780900966224, p. 94. Gustaf Mannerheim served as a Russian cavalry officer in Poland since 1889, though in smaller garrison cities like Kalisz and Mińsk Mazowiecki. He was assigned to the Warsaw garrison (another life-guard regiment) few years after Don Jaime had left it, in 1909, though the two might have met during the Russo-Japanese war. Unlike Don Jaime, a foreigner unfamiliar with local political setting, Mannerheim was "acutely conscious of his position in the army that had been used to destroy the liberty of Poland" and went on with the locals very well
  154. ^ Andrés Martín 2000, pp. 42–44 and onwards
  155. ^ though it is difficult to imagine what other period he might have had in mind when noting in 1931 "many years I have spent in Russia", Clemente 1999, p. 161
  156. ^ most detailed historiographical works on Don Jaime do not mention Warsaw at all, referring only to service in the Russian army in general, see Andrés Martín 2000, Fernández Escudero 2012
  157. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 55
  158. ^ Andrés Martín 2000, p. 94
  159. ^ Jordi Canal, El carlismo, Madrid 2000, ISBN 8420639478, pp. 274–8, 282–8, 291–3
  160. ^ Jan Kieniewicz, Hiszpania w polskim zwierciadle, Gdańsk 2001, ISBN 8385560742, Piotr Sawicki, Polska-Hiszpania, Hiszpania-Polska : poszerzanie horyzontów, Wrocław 2013, ISBN 9788360097212
  161. ^ in Polish historiography the notable exception is Jacek Bartyzel, see his Umierać ale powoli, Kraków 2002, p. 286. More detailed comments in his Karlizm widziany z Polski, [in:] service, available here
  162. ^ the telegram message received was dated February 7 (February 20 new style), Bofarull 2006, p. 55; Japan declared war on Russia on February 4
  163. ^ where he befriended Grand Duque Boris, Ivan de Schaeck, Six mois en Mandchourie, Paris 1906, p. 94
  164. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 56
  165. ^ Bofarull 2006, pp. 56-57
  166. ^ Ferrer 1960, p. 32
  167. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 56, El Lábaro 28.05.05, available here
  168. ^ see official headings of military correspondence, Bofarull 2006, p. 56
  169. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 57; according to his own account Don Jaime did not take off his shoes for 5 days, Artagan 1912, p. 32
  170. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 32
  171. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 57, Artagan 1912, p. 32
  172. ^ La Rioja 28.08.04, available here
  173. ^ El Adelanto 17.10.04, available here
  174. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 58
  175. ^ Artagan 1912, p. 33
  176. ^ El Día de Palencia 11.12.04, available here
  177. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 58
  178. ^ El Siglo Futuro 19.01.05, available here
  179. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 58; Ferrer wrongly claims it was on March 6, 1905, Ferrer 1960, p. 19
  180. ^ La Victoria 01.02.07, available here
  181. ^ La Correspondencia de España 12.04.07, available here
  182. ^ El Adelanto 14.08.07, available here
  183. ^ noted in Nice, Monte Carlo and Cannes, El Dia de Palencia 09.03.05, available here
  184. ^ La Correspondencia de Cadiz 24.11.05, available here; in November 1907 the Chambord castle became the property of Don Jaime’s cousin, Duque of Parma Elié de Borbón-Parma
  185. ^ La Correspondencia de Valencia 21.02.06, available here
  186. ^ for 1905 see El Dia 17.08.05, available here, for 1906 see La Epoca 08.10.06, available here, for 1907 see Nowiny Ilustrowane 16.11.07, available here
  187. ^ El Cantabrico 14.03.06, available here
  188. ^ Diario de la Marina 07.05.07, available here
  189. ^ Diario de la Marina 23.08.08, available here
  190. ^ El Eco de Santiago 26.06.09, available here
  191. ^ Heraldo de Zamora 31.03.06, available here
  192. ^ El Cantabrico 08.08.07, available here
  193. ^ La Correspondencia de Valencia 29.06.08, available here
  194. ^ La Atalaya 12.04.07, available here
  195. ^ La Correspondencia de España 04.04.06, available here
  196. ^ Heraldo de Zamora 14.07.06, available here
  197. ^ El Graduador 26.10.07, available here
  198. ^ Diario de Cordoba de comercio 12.04.07, available here
  199. ^ between December 1908, see El Cantabrico 30.12.08, available here and January 1909, El Cantabrico 02.01.09, available here
  200. ^ El Adelanto 15.04.07, available here, also La Correspondencia de España 26.08.08, available here, and many other
  201. ^ Gaytan de Ayala was almost the same age (born 1872), and served as director tecnico of Sociedad Minera de Villaodrid, Gabriel Ramallal, Las minas de hierro de Villaodrid: El fracaso de un proyecto extraordinario, Madrid 2020, ISBN 9788494817861, p. 124
  202. ^ La Epoca23.03.05, available here
  203. ^ Diario de la Marina 07.05.07, available here
  204. ^ El Pueblo 31.07.08, available here a
  205. ^ La Campana Gorda 18.04.07, available here
  206. ^ El Adelanto 15.04.07, available here
  207. ^ La Correspondencia de Valencia 29.06.08, available here
  208. ^ La Correspondencia de España 26.087.08, available here
  209. ^ on July 14, 1904 he was invited to join celebrations of the French national holiday; it was at this opportunity that he gave an interview, La Opinión 09.08.04, available here
  210. ^ Diario de Comercio 11.09.04, available here
  211. ^ El bien publico 06.10.04, available here
  212. ^ Andrés Martín 2000, p. 42
  213. ^ Bofarull 2006, p. 57
  214. ^ Diario de la Marina 09.09.04, available here
  215. ^ El Noroeste 18.02.06, available here, also La Correspondencia de Valencia 21.02.06, available here
  216. ^ El Noroeste 03.06.06, available here
  217. ^ El bien publico 11.01.08, available here
  218. ^ La Epoca 07.09.08, avaulable here
  219. ^ Andrés Martín 2000, p. 44
  220. ^ e.g. in November1908 he was rumored to run in elections on the list of Solidaridad Catalana from Barcelona, El Noroeste 15.11.08, available here
  221. ^ El Restaurador 19.11.08, available here
  222. ^ El Noroeste 26.12.08, available here
  223. ^ El Cantabrico 08.08.07, available here
  224. ^ El Guadalete 23.09.06, available here
  225. ^ El Correo Español 03.03.06, available here
  226. ^ Diario de la Marina 23.08.09, available here
  227. ^ La Correspondencia de Valencia 29.06.-08, available here
  228. ^ e.g. see his 1907 letter to Barrio related to setup of Juventud Carlista de Barcelona, Diario de Reus 10.03.07, available here
  229. ^ e.g. in 1906 in Paris he addressed the Carlists with a call to be united and beware of false friends, El Eco de Navarra 16.09.06, available here
  230. ^ Fernández Escudero 2012, p. 419
  231. ^ La Atalaya 27.03.07, available here
  232. ^ Los debates 26.09.08, available here
  233. ^ Fernández Escudero 2012, pp. 305, 308
  234. ^ Diario de la Marina 27.05.05, available here
  235. ^ Andrés Martín 2000, p. 44
  236. ^ since returning from Manchuria in 1905 Don Jaime was engaged in legal battle against a certain Monsieur Darracq; it was related to shares in Societé Nicoise, which Don Jaime owned and deposed before going to war. The company later went bankrupt. Don Jaime sued Darracq and initially won, but he lost the appeal in 1908 and suffered heavy financial loss, La Correspondencia de España 25.07.08, available here
  237. ^ Ignacio Miguéliz Valcarlos (ed.), Una mirada intima al dia a dia del pretendiente carlista, Pamplona 2017, ISBN 9788423534371, pp. 94, 230, 444
  238. ^ e.g. Don Jaime visited his sister and her Habsburg family in Vienna, El Dia de Palencia 19.05.05, available here. He remained on very good terms with his brother-in-law, Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria, e.g. in 1907 they watched hydroplane attempts in Paris, see Gallica service, available here
  239. ^ La Correspondencia de Cadiz 24.11.05, available here
  240. ^ La Correspondencia de Valencia 14.04.09, available here
  241. ^ Diario de la Marina 28.03.05, available here
  242. ^ El Dia de Palencia 19.05.05, available here
  243. ^ Las Provincias 11.06.06, available here, also La Epoca 13.07.6, available here
  244. ^ 1906 July the tsar granted his permission to pass to reserve, or released “licencia absoluta”, Diario de Reus 11.07.06, available here. However, a Russian source claims he was released from service in 1909 (“Хайме Бурбонский вышел в отставку полковником в 1909 году с правом ношения мундура”), Владимир Чуров, Исторические записки посла по особым поручениям, Москва 2020, ISBN 9785043754103, p. 130
  245. ^ El Pueblo 11.12.08, available here
  246. ^ Cronica Meridional 22.12.07, available here
  247. ^ to which he was officially entitled by the Russian military authorities, Чуров 2020, p. 130
  248. ^ Nowiny Ilustrowane 16.11.07, available here
  249. ^ La vie au grand air 26.10.07, available here
  250. ^ La Cruz 13.11.07, available here
  251. ^ El heraldo toledano 06.11.07, available here
  252. ^ El tradicionalista 16.06.09, available here
  253. ^ "The Death of the Duke of Madrid", The Times (5 October 1931): 14.
  254. ^ "Contradicts Reports of Zita's Poverty. The New York Times (15 June 1922): 6.
  255. ^ "Legitimist Manifesto", The Times (24 April 1931), 14.
  256. ^ "King Alfonso and the Duke of Madrid", The Times (25 September 1931): 12.
  257. ^ "The Duke of Madrid at Fontainebleau", The Times (26 September 1931): 9.
Warsaw, Chopina 8 today

External links[edit]


  • Alcalá, César, Jaime de Borbón. El último rey romántico, Madrid 2011, ISBN 9788461475117
  • "Don Jaime is Dead: Carlist Pretender". The New York Times (3 October 1931): 11.
  • "The Duke of Madrid, Soldier and Traveller". The Times (5 October 1931): 19.
  • Елец, Юлий Лукьянович, История Лейб-Гвардии Гродненского Гусарского полка, New York 2015, ISBN 9785519406048
  • Andrés Martín, Juan Ramón de, El cisma mellista: historia de una ambición política. Madrid: Actas Editorial, 2000, ISBN 9788487863820
  • Melgar del Rey, Francisco Melgar de, Don Jaime, el príncipe caballero. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1932. OCLC 6388350
  • Melgar del Rey, Francisco Melgar de, El noble final de la escisión dinástica. Madrid: Consejo Privado de S.A.R. el Conde de Barcelona, 1964.
Infante Jaime, Duke of Madrid
Cadet branch of the House of Capetian
Born: 27 June 1870 Died: 2 October 1931
French nobility
Title last held by
Louis Stanislas
Duke of Anjou
1883 – 2 October 1931
Succeeded by
Spanish nobility
Preceded by Duke of Madrid
18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931
Title next held by
Infante Alfonso Carlos
as Duke of San Jaime
Titles in pretence
Preceded by — TITULAR —
King of Spain
Carlist pretender
18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931
Succeeded by
King of France
Legitimist succession
18 July 1909 – 2 October 1931
Dauphin of France
Legitimist succession
21 November 1887 - 18 July 1909
Title next held by