List of Sicilian monarchs

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Sicily (14th century).

The monarchs of Sicily ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130 until the "perfect fusion" in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816.

The origins of the Sicilian monarchy lie in the Norman conquest of southern Italy which occurred between the 11th and 12th century. Sicily, which was ruled as an Islamic emirate for at least two centuries, was invaded in 1071 by Norman House of Hauteville, who conquered Palermo and established a feudal county named the County of Sicily. The House of Hauteville completed their conquest of Sicily in 1091.

In 1130, the County of Sicily and the County of Apulia, ruled by different branches of the House of Hauteville, merged as the Kingdom of Sicily, and Count Roger II was crowned king by Antipope Anacletus II. In 1282, after the Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom split into separate states: the properly named "Ultra Sicily" (Siciliae ultra Pharum, Latin for "Sicily over the Strait") and "Hither Sicily" (Siciliae citra, commonly called "the Kingdom of Naples").[1] Definitive unification occurred in 1816, when Ferdinand IV and III made the two entities into a single state, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.[2][3]

Kings of Sicily[edit]

Roger II received royal investiture from Antipope Anacletus II in 1130 and recognition from Pope Innocent II in 1139. The Kingdom of Sicily, which by then comprised not only the island, but also the southern third of the Italian peninsula, rapidly expanded itself to include Malta and the Mahdia, the latter if only briefly.

House of Hauteville, 1130–1198[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
Roger II
Roger II 22 December 1095
son of Roger I of Sicily and Adelaide del Vasto
Elvira of Castile
6 children

Sibyl of Burgundy
2 children

Beatrix of Rethel
1 child
26 February 1154
aged 58
Papal bull by
Antipope Anacletus II
William I the Bad
William I 1121
son of Roger II and Elvira of Castile
Margaret of Navarre
4 children
7 May 1166
aged 45
Son of Roger II
Agnatic primogeniture
William II the Good
William II 1155
son of William I and Margaret of Navarre
Joan of England
February 1177
1 child
11 November 1189
aged 34
Son of William I
Agnatic primogeniture
Tancred I
(joint rule)
Tancred 1138
illegitimate son of Roger III, Duke of Apulia
Sibylla of Acerra
6 children
20 February 1194
aged 56
Illegitimate grandson of
Roger II
Roger III
(joint rule)
Hauteville 1175
son of Tancred of Sicily and Sibylla of Acerra
Irene Angelina
no children
24 December 1193
aged 18
Son of Tancred I
Agnatic primogeniture
William III
William III 1190
son of Tancred and Sibylla of Acerra
never married 1198
aged 8
Son of Tancred I
Agnatic primogeniture
Constance I
Constance 2 November 1154
daughter of Roger II and Beatrix of Rethel
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
1 child
27 November 1198
aged 44
Posthumous daughter of
Roger II
Right of Conquest

Constance was married to the Emperor Henry VI and he pressed his claim to the kingdom from William II's death, but only succeeded in displacing his wife's family in 1194.

There is evidence that, during the baronial revolt of 1197, there was an attempt to make Count Jordan Lupin of Bovino king in opposition to Henry VI. He may even have been crowned and seems to have had the support of Constance, who had turned against her husband. In the end he was captured and executed. He is accepted as a pretender to the throne by modern historians Evelyn Jamison and Thomas Curtis Van Cleve.

House of Hohenstaufen, 1194–1266[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
Henry I
Henry (I) November 1165
son of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrix of Burgundy
Constance of Sicily
1 child
28 September 1197
aged 32
Husband of Constance
Jure uxoris
Frederick I
(joint rule)
Frederick I 26 December 1194
son of Henry I and Constance I
Constance of Aragon
15 August 1209
1 child

Isabella II of Jerusalem
9 November 1225
2 children

Isabella of England
15 July 1235
4 children
13 December 1250
aged 55
Son of Constance
Jure matris
Henry II
(joint rule)
Henry (II) 1211
son of Frederick II and Constance of Aragon
Margaret of Austria
29 November 1225
2 children
12 February 1242
aged 30
Son of Frederick I
Agnatic primogeniture
Conrad I
Conrad I 25 April 1228
son of Frederick II and Isabella II of Jerusalem
Elisabeth of Bavaria
1 September 1246
1 child
21 May 1254
aged 26
Son of Frederick I
Agnatic primogeniture
Conrad II the Younger
aka Conradin
Conrad II 25 March 1252
son of Conrad I and Elisabeth of Bavaria
never married 29 October 1268
aged 16
Son of Conrad I
Agnatic primogeniture
Manfred of Sicily 1232
Illegitimate son of Frederick II
Beatrice of Savoy
21 April 1247
1 child

Helena Angelina Doukaina
9 November 1255
5 children
26 February 1266
Battle of Benevento
aged 34
(killed in action)
Illegitimate son of Frederick I

Manfred was regent of Sicily for his nephew, the child Conrad II ("Conradin"), but took the crown in 1258, and continued to fight to keep the kingdom under the Hohenstaufen. In 1254 the pope, having declared the kingdom a Papal possession, offered the crown to the King of England's son, Edmund Crouchback, but the English never succeeded in taking the kingdom. In 1262 the pope reversed his previous decision and granted the kingdom to the King of France's brother, Charles of Anjou, who succeeded in dispossessing Manfred in 1266. Conradin continued his claim to the throne until his death by decapitation perpetrated by Charles of Anjou in 1268.

House of Plantagenet[edit]

Edmund Crouchback, son of King Henry III of England, claimed the Crown of Sicily between 1254 and 1263. Both he and his father took the claim very seriously, but it was completely ineffectual.

Capetian House of Anjou, 1266–1282[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Charles I
Charles I 21 March 1227
son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile
Beatrice of Provence
31 January 1246
6 children

Margaret of Nevers
18 November 1268
7 January 1285
aged 57

Peter III of Aragon, Manfred's son in law, of the House of Barcelona, conquered the island of Sicily from Charles I in 1282 and had himself crowned King of Sicily. Thereafter the old Kingdom of Sicily was centred on the mainland, with capital at Naples, and although informally called Kingdom of Naples it was still known formally as "Kingdom of Sicily". Thus, there were two "Sicilies" — the island kingdom, however, was often called "Sicily beyond the Lighthouse" or "Trinacria", by terms of a treaty between the two states.

House of Barcelona, 1282–1410[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
Constance II (joint rule)
Constance II 1249
daughter of Manfred of Sicily and Beatrice of Savoy
Peter I the Great
13 June 1262
6 children
9 April 1302
Barcelona, Spain
aged 52 or 53
Daughter of Manfred of Sicily
Right of conquest
Peter I the Great (joint rule)
Peter I 1240
son of James I of Aragon and Yolanda of Hungary
Constance of Sicily
13 June 1262
6 children
2 November 1285
Vilafranca del Penedès
aged 45
Husband of Constance II
Jure uxoris
James the Just
James 10 August 1267
son of Peter I and Constance of Sicily
Isabella of Castile
1 December 1291
No children

Blanche of Anjou
29 October 1295
10 children

Marie de Lusignan
15 June 1315
No children

Elisenda de Montcada
25 December 1322
No children
5 November 1327
aged 60
Son of Peter I and Constance II
Salic patrimony
Frederick II
Aragon 13 December 1272
son of Peter I and Constance of Sicily
Eleanor of Anjou
17 May 1302
9 children
25 June 1337
aged 65
Regent brother of James
Peter II
Aragon July 1305
son of Frederick II and Eleanor of Anjou
Elisabeth of Carinthia
23 April 1322
9 children
15 August 1342
aged 37
Son of Frederick II
Agnatic primogeniture
Aragon 1337
son of Peter II and Elisabeth of Carinthia
Never married 16 October 1355
Aci Castello
aged 18
Son of Peter II
Agnatic primogeniture
Frederick III the Simple
Aragon 1 September 1341
son of Peter II and Elisabeth of Carinthia
Constance of Aragon
11 April 1361
1 child

Antonia of Balzo
17 January 1372
No children
27 January 1377
aged 36
Son of Peter II
Brother of Louis
Agnatic primogeniture
(joint rule)
Aragon 1363
daughter of Frederick III and Constance of Aragon
Martin I of Sicily
1 child
25 May 1401
aged 38
Daughter of Frederick III
Cognatic primogeniture
Martin I the Younger
(joint rule)
Aragon 1374
son of Martin I of Aragon (Martin II of Sicily) and Maria of Luna
Maria of Sicily
1 child
25 July 1409
aged 35
Husband of Maria
Jure uxoris
Martin II the Elder
Martin II 1356
son of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily
Maria de Luna
13 June 1372
4 children

Margarita of Aragon-Prades
No children
31 May 1410
aged 54
Maternal grandson of Peter II
Cognatic primogeniture

Martin I died without an heir in 1409 and the kingdom was inherited by his father who united it to the Crown of Aragon.

House of Trastámara, 1412–1516[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Ferdinand I the Honest
Ferdinand I 27 November 1380
Medina del Campo
son of John I of Castile and Eleanor of Aragon
Eleanor of Alburquerque
8 children
2 April 1416
aged 36
Alfonso the Magnanimous
Alfonso 1396
Medina del Campo
son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Maria of Castile
No children
27 June 1458
aged 52
John the Great
Ferdinand II 29 June 1397
Medina del Campo
son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Blanche I of Navarre
6 November 1419
4 children

Juana Enríquez
2 children
20 January 1479
aged 81
Ferdinand II the Catholic
Ferdinand II 10 March 1452
son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez
Isabella I of Castile
19 October 1469
5 children

Germaine of Foix
No children
23 January 1516
aged 63
Joanna the Mad
Joanna 6 November 1479
daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile
Philip IV of Burgundy
6 children
12 April 1555
aged 75

Joanna was confined under alleged insanity during her whole reign.

House of Habsburg, 1516-1700[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Charles I
Charles I 24 February 1500
son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
Isabella of Portugal
10 March 1526
3 children
21 September 1558
aged 58
Philip I
Philip I 21 May 1527
son of Charles I and Isabella of Portugal
Maria of Portugal
1 child

Mary I of England
No children

Elisabeth of Valois
2 children

Anna of Austria
4 May 1570
5 children
13 September 1598
aged 71
Philip II
Philip II 14 April 1578
son of Philip I and Anna of Austria
Margaret of Austria
18 April 1599
5 children
31 March 1621
aged 42
Philip III
Philip III 8 April 1605
son of Philip II and Margaret of Austria
Elisabeth of Bourbon
7 children

Mariana of Austria
5 children

17 September 1665
aged 60
Charles II
Charles II 6 November 1661
son of Philip III and Mariana of Austria
Maria Luisa of Orléans
19 November 1679
No children

Maria Anna of Neuburg
14 May 1690
No children

1 November 1700
aged 38

House of Bourbon, 1700-1713, during War of the Spanish Succession[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Philip IV
Charles V 19 December 1683
son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna of Bavaria
Maria Luisa of Savoy
2 November 1701
4 children

Elisabeth of Parma
24 December 1714
7 children

9 July 1746
aged 62

At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, by the Treaty of Utrecht, Sicily was ceded to the Duke of Savoy.

House of Savoy, 1713–1720[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Victor Amadeus
Victor Amadeus 14 May 1666
son of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours
Anne Marie of Orléans
10 April 1684
6 children
31 October 1732
aged 66

The Spanish invaded the kingdom in 1718 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. The Duke of Savoy ceded it to Austria in 1720 by the Treaty of The Hague.

House of Habsburg, 1720–1735[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Charles III
Charles III 1 October 1685
son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg
Elisabeth Christine
1 August 1708
4 children
20 October 1740
aged 55

Charles I, Duke of Parma conquered the kingdom during the War of the Polish Succession. At the end of the war Sicily was ceded to him as Charles III of Sicily.

House of Bourbon 1735–1816[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death
Charles III
Charles III 20 January 1716
son of Philip IV and Elizabeth of Parma
Maria Amalia of Saxony
13 children
14 December 1788
aged 72
Ferdinand III
Ferdinand IV 12 January 1751
son of Charles III and Maria Amalia of Saxony
Marie Caroline of Austria
12 May 1768
17 children

Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia
27 November 1814
No children
4 January 1825
aged 73

In 1816 the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily were merged as the new Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies 1816–1861[edit]

Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Title
Ferdinand I
(Ferdinando I)
12 December 1816 4 January 1825  • Son of Charles III of Spain King of the Two Sicilies
(Rè delle Due Sicilie)
Francis I
(Francesco I)
4 January 1825 8 November 1830  • Son of Ferdinand I King of the Two Sicilies
(Rè delle Due Sicilie)
Ferdinand II
(Ferdinando II)
8 November 1830 22 May 1859  • Son of Francis I King of the Two Sicilies
(Rè delle Due Sicilie)
Francis II
(Francesco II)
22 May 1859 20 March 1861  • Son of Ferdinand II King of the Two Sicilies
(Rè delle Due Sicilie)

Family tree[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Vespri siciliani nell'Enciclopedia Treccani". (in Italian). Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  2. ^ "Ferdinand I | king of the Two Sicilies". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  3. ^ "Due Sicilie, regno delle in "Dizionario di Storia"". (in Italian). Retrieved 20 July 2021.